Spring – Siege of Naples: The Byzantine garrison (1,000 men) in Naples surrenders to the Ostrogoths, pressed by famine and demoralized by the failure of two relief efforts. The defenders are well treated by King Totila, and the garrison is allowed safe departure, but the city walls are partly razed.
The fortress city of Old Dongola (modern Sudan) along the Nile River becomes the capital of Makuria. Several churches are built, including the "Old Church" (approximate date).
Summer – King Khosrau I invades Syria again, and turns south towards Edessa to besiege the fortress city.
The Hephthalites threaten the Persian Empire from the East. They extend their domain in Central Asia (approximate date).
King Pulakeshin I establishes the Chalukya Dynasty (India). He extends his kingdom by conquering Vakataka and the west coast of Karnataka, giving him access to the valuable Arabian Sea trade routes.
Approximate date – The Yupian (玉篇) Chinese dictionary is edited by Gu Yewang.
The doctrine of apocatastasis is condemned by the Synod of Constantinople.
Brunhilda, queen of Austrasia (approximate date)
Columbanus, Irish missionary (d. 615)
Jing Di, emperor of the Liang Dynasty (d. 558)
Wu Di, emperor of Northern Zhou (d. 578)
Benedict of Nursia, monasticist (b. 480)
Octa, king of Kent (approximate date) (b. 500)
Year 543 (DXLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 543 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.