Neha Patil (Editor)

44th United States Congress

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Senate Majority  Republican
House Majority  Democratic
44th United States Congress
Senate President  Henry Wilson (R) until November 22, 1875 Vacant from November 22, 1875
Senate Pres. pro tem  Thomas W. Ferry (R) from March 9, 1875
House Speaker  Michael C. Kerr (D) until August 19, 1876 Samuel J. Randall (D) from December 4, 1876
Members  76 Senators 293 Representatives 9 Non-voting members

The Forty-fourth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1875 to March 4, 1877, during the seventh and eighth years of Ulysses S. Grant's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Ninth Census of the United States in 1870. For the first time since the American Civil War, the House had a Democratic majority. The Senate maintained a Republican majority.


Major events

  • November 22, 1875: Vice President Henry Wilson died from a stroke
  • June 25, 1876: Custer's Last Stand at the Battle of Little Bighorn
  • July 4, 1876: United States Centennial
  • November 7, 1876: United States general elections, 1876, including the disputed Presidential election of 1876, later settled with the Compromise of 1877 which ended Reconstruction.
  • Major legislation

  • March 3, 1877: Desert Land Act, ch. 107, 19 Stat. 377
  • State admitted

  • August 1, 1876: Colorado admitted as the 38th state
  • Party summary

    The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

    During this Congress, two Senate seats and one House seat were added for the new state, Colorado.


  • President: Henry Wilson (R), until November 22, 1875; vacant thereafter.
  • President pro tempore: Thomas W. Ferry (R), from March 9, 1875
  • Republican Conference Chairman: Henry B. Anthony
  • Democratic Caucus Chairman: John W. Stevenson
  • House of Representatives

  • Speaker: Michael C. Kerr (D), until August 19, 1876 (died)
  • Samuel J. Randall (D), elected December 4, 1876
  • Democratic Caucus Chairman: Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar II
  • Republican Conference Chair: George W. McCrary
  • Members

    This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.

    Skip to House of Representatives, below


    Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1880; Class 2 meant their term ended in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1876; and Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1878.

    House of Representatives

    The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

    Changes in membership

    The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.


  • replacements: 4
  • Democratic: 1 seat net gain
  • Republican: 1 seat net loss
  • deaths: 3
  • resignations: 1
  • vacancy: 1
  • interim appointments: 3
  • seats of newly admitted states: 2
  • Total seats with changes: 7
  • House of Representatives

  • replacements: 14
  • Democratic: no net change
  • Republican: no net change
  • deaths: 9
  • resignations: 6
  • contested election: 5
  • seats of newly admitted states: 1
  • Total seats with changes: 21
  • Committees

    Lists of committees and their party leaders.


  • Agriculture
  • Appropriations
  • Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate
  • Civil Service and Retrenchment
  • Claims
  • Commerce
  • Counting the Electoral Vote (Select)
  • Distributing Public Revenue Among the States (Select)
  • District of Columbia
  • Education and Labor
  • Engrossed Bills
  • Enrolled Bills
  • Examine the Several Branches in the Civil Service (Select)
  • Finance
  • Foreign Relations
  • Indian Affairs
  • Judiciary
  • Manufactures
  • Military Affairs
  • Mines and Mining
  • Mississippi River Levee System (Select)
  • Mississippi Election Frauds, 1876
  • Naval Affairs
  • Ordnance and War Ships (Select)
  • Patents
  • Pensions
  • Post Office and Post Roads
  • Private Land Claims
  • Privileges and Elections
  • Public Lands
  • Railroads
  • Revision of the Laws
  • Revolutionary Claims
  • Rules
  • Tariff Regulation (Select)
  • Territories
  • Transportation Routes to the Seaboard (Select)
  • Whole
  • House of Representatives

  • Accounts
  • Agriculture
  • Appropriations
  • Banking and Currency
  • Claims
  • Coinage, Weights and Measures
  • Commerce
  • District of Columbia
  • Education and Labor
  • Elections
  • Enrolled Bills
  • Expenditures in the Interior Department
  • Expenditures in the Justice Department
  • Expenditures in the Navy Department
  • Expenditures in the Post Office Department
  • Expenditures in the State Department
  • Expenditures in the Treasury Department
  • Expenditures in the War Department
  • Expenditures on Public Buildings
  • Foreign Affairs
  • Indian Affairs
  • Invalid Pensions
  • Manufactures
  • Mileage
  • Military Affairs
  • Militia
  • Mines and Mining
  • Mississippi Levees
  • Naval Affairs
  • Pacific Railroads
  • Patents
  • Post Office and Post Roads
  • Public Buildings and Grounds
  • Public Expenditures
  • Public Lands
  • Railways and Canals
  • Revision of Laws
  • Rules (Select)
  • Standards of Official Conduct
  • Territories
  • War Claims
  • Ways and Means
  • Whole
  • Joint committees

  • Conditions of Indian Tribes (Special)
  • Enrolled Bills
  • Frame a Form of Government for the District of Columbia
  • Investigate Chinese Immigration
  • Employees

  • Architect of the Capitol: Edward Clark
  • Librarian of Congress: Ainsworth Rand Spofford
  • Public Printer of the United States: Almon M. Clapp
  • Senate

  • Chaplain: Byron Sunderland (Presbyterian)
  • Secretary: George C. Gorham
  • Sergeant at Arms of the Senate: John R. French
  • House of Representatives

  • Chaplain: S. L. Townsend (Episcopalian)
  • Clerk: George M. Adams
  • Clerk at the Speaker’s Table: William H. Scudder
  • Doorkeeper: Lafayette H. Fitzhugh
  • Postmaster of the House: James M. Steuart
  • Sergeant at Arms: John G. Thompson
  • References

    44th United States Congress Wikipedia