Puneet Varma (Editor)

2001 Sino Russian Treaty of Friendship

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Traditional Chinese  中俄睦鄰友好合作條約
Simplified Chinese  中俄睦邻友好合作条约
2001 Sino-Russian Treaty of Friendship

Hanyu Pinyin  Zhōng É mùlín Yǒuhǎo hézuò tiáoyuē  Listen (help·info)
Yale Romanization  jūng ngòh muhk lèuhn yáuh hóu hahp jok tiùh yeuk
Jyutping  zung1 ngo4 muk6 leon4 jau5 hou2 hap6 zok3 tiu4 joek3
Russian  Договор о Добрососедстве Дружбе и Сотрудничестве Между Российской Федерацией и Китайской Народной Республикой

The Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation Between the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation (FCT) is a twenty-year strategic treaty that was signed by the leaders of the two international powers, Jiang Zemin and Vladimir Putin, on July 16, 2001.



The treaty outlines the broad strokes which are to serve as a basis for peaceful relations, economic cooperation, as well as diplomatic and geopolitical reliance. Controversially, Article 9 of the treaty can be seen as an implicit defense pact, and other articles (A7 and A16) point at increasing military cooperation, including the sharing of "military know-how" (A16), namely, Chinese access to Russian military technology.

The treaty also encompasses a mutual, cooperative approach to environmental technology regulations and energy conservation; and toward international finance and trade. The document affirms Russia's stand on Taiwan as "an inalienable part of China" (A5), and highlights the commitment to ensure the "national unity and territorial integrity" in the two countries (A4).

Possible benefits

Analysts have attributed the motives behind, and perceived mutual benefit of, the FCT to several factors.


  • China wishes to develop and modernize its armed forces, much of which remain outdated. This process can be accelerated with Russian military training and technology.
  • China wants to obtain a stable, consistent and affordable level of fuel shipments, especially petroleum. This goal can be better met with purchases and delivery of Russian oil, including the construction of an Eastern Siberia–Pacific Ocean oil pipeline.
  • China wishes to attain support for its stance on Taiwan.
  • Russia

  • Russia strives to obtain sources of capital, which it is in need of following severe losses to international speculators during the process of Soviet dissolution. This effort can be significantly aided through the use of Chinese capital. Accordingly:
  • Russia wants to find sources of employment for its skilled workforce.
  • Russia wants to sell its military technology and expertise.
  • Russia wants to sell its large reserves of petroleum and natural gas.
  • Economic competition with the US, Japan and the EU

    The United States, Japan and the European Union are three economic powers who possess a skilled workforce and access to capital. Russia and the PRC can more effectively compete against these powers in the world economy, with Russia given access to Chinese capital and China given access to Russian training and technology.


    2001 Sino-Russian Treaty of Friendship Wikipedia