Trisha Shetty (Editor)

1st millennium BC

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1st millennium BC

The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of many successive empires, and spanned from 1000 BC to 1 BC.


The Neo-Assyrian Empire develops, followed by the Achaemenids. In Greece, Classical Antiquity begins with the colonization of Magna Graecia and peaks with the rise of Hellenism. The close of the millennium sees the rise of the Roman Empire. In South Asia, the Vedic civilization blends into the Maurya Empire. The early Celts dominate Central Europe while Northern Europe is in the Pre-Roman Iron Age. The Scythians dominate Central Asia. In China, the Spring and Autumn period sees the rise of Confucianism. Towards the close of the millennium, the Han Dynasty extends Chinese power towards Central Asia, where it borders on Indo-Greek and Iranian states. Yayoi period in Japanese islands. The Maya civilization rises in Central America, while in Africa, Ancient Egypt begins its decline, rise of the Nubian Empire, and Aksum's birth. The religions of Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism (Vedic religion and Vedanta), Jainism and Buddhism develop. Graeco-Roman Europe, India and China see the rise of literature.

World population greatly increases in the course of the millennium, reaching some 170 to 400 million people at its close depending on the estimates used.


The events in this section are organized according to the United Nations geoscheme

Significant people

The people in this section are organized according to the United Nations geoscheme

Cultural landmarks

  • The Axial Age (8th century BC—2nd century BC), according to the theory of Karl Jaspers.
  • Qin built and unified various sections of the Great Wall of China.
  • Qin built Qin Shi Huang's Mausoleum guarded by the life-sized Terracotta Army.
  • Late 3rd century BC or 2nd century BC—Veiled and masked dancer is made. It is now kept at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  • References

    1st millennium BC Wikipedia

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