Garrison/HQ Fort Hood
|Branch Regular Army|
Nickname(s) Silver Knights
|Active 3 August 1917 - 12 November 1945
10 June 1950 - 24 March 1962
3 January 1968 – present|
Motto(s) Fortitude and Compassion
The 1st Medical Brigade is a US Army unit located at Fort Hood, Texas, providing health care and medical services to the Fort Hood community, and continuing training in its combat support mission.
- Command Group
- Constituted 3 August 1917
- Reorganized and Redesignated 1st Medical Regiment 10 February 1921
- Reorganized and Redesignated 1st Medical Group 1 September 1943
- Activated 10 June 1950
- Activated 3 January 1968
- Reorganized and Redesignated 1st Medical Brigade 6 June 2000
- Campaign participation credit
- Shoulder sleeve insignia
- Distinctive unit insignia
- World War I
- Sommerville Sector
- Ansauville Sector
- Cantigny Sector
- Meuse Argonne
- Supporting the Medical Field Service School
- The Ohio river floods 1937
- Supporting NATO
- Fort Sam Houston
- 1 February 1945
- 1 March 1945
- 23 March 1945
- 1 May 1945
- Operation Desert Shield
- Operation Desert Storm
Constituted 3 August 1917
Major C. C. Demmer 24 November 1917 – 31 December 1917
Major Harry G. Ford 1 January 1918-February 28, 1918
Colonel James I. Mabee 1 March 1918 – 31 August 1918
Major Edwin B. Maynard, Jr. 1 September 1918 – 16 October 1918
Lieutenant Colonel Herbert C. Wolley 20 February 1918-August 1919
Major Joseph E. Bastian November 1919-August 1920
Major Henry S. Beckford August 1920-September 1920
Major Wood S. Woolford 1 September 1920-
Reorganized and Redesignated 1st Medical Regiment 10 February 1921
Lieutenant Colonel Frank A Pyles 6 October 1921 – 3 February 1922
Captain William C. Russell 4 February 1922 – 23 August 1922
Captain Joe A. Carden 23 August 1922 – 9 November 1922
Major Joseph E. Bastion 10 November 1922 – 18 July 1923
Major Gerald L. McKinney 19 July 1923 – 19 July 1928
Major Robert P. Williams 19 July 1928 – 26 July 1928
Major John M. Willis 26 July 1928 – 30 August 1929
Major Frank S. Matlack 30 August 1929 – 31 July 1930
Lieutenant Colonel Larry B. McAfee 1 August 1930 – 30 August 1930
Major Frank S. Matlack 30 August 1930 – 5 June 1933
Major Jacob L. Hartman 6 June 1933 – 30 November 1933
Major Frank S. Matlack 30 November 1933 – 24 June 1934
Lieutenant Colonel Lamphear W. Webb, Jr. 24 June 1934 – 1 December 1935
Major Howard T. Wickert 2 December 1935 – 31 August 1938
Lieutenant Colonel George F. Lull 7 September 1936 – 30 June 1937
Lieutenant Colonel Paul R. Hawley 1 July 1937 – 31 August 1938
Major Alvin L. Gorby 31 August 1938 – 7 June 1940
Lieutenant Colonel Robert P. Williams 8 June 1940 – 24 September 1940
Colonel Wilson C. von Kessler 24 September 1940 – 18 December 1940
Lieutenant Colonel Paul R. E. Sheppard 18 December 1940-January 1941
Major John B. Minna 1 December 1941 – 8 December 1941
Major Paul H. Martin 9 December 1941 – 20 February 1942
Colonel Harry H. Towler 21 February 1942 – 14 June 1942
Major Eaton W. Bennett 15 June 1942 – 26 August 1942
Colonel Robert B. Skinner 27 August 1942 – 21 May 1943
Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin Woro 22 May 1943 – 16 June 1943
Lieutenant Colonel Charles W. Mason 17 June 1943 – 26 July 1943
Lieutenant Colonel Glenn J. Collins 27 July 1943 – 7 August 1943
Reorganized and Redesignated 1st Medical Group 1 September 1943
Colonel Lester P. Viegel 7 August 1943 – 16 October 1945
Captain Harry L. Gans 16 October 1945 – 12 November 1945
Activated 10 June 1950
Colonel Albert J. Robinson May 1953-
Lieutenant Colonel Edwin H. Czapla 11 November 1954-
Lieutenant Colonel John A. Mikiluk 2 November 1955-
Colonel Joseph T. Caples 1 September 1957 – 8 February 1959
Lieutenant Colonel Norman Lepper 9 February 1959 – 22 April 1959
Colonel Joseph K. Barne 23 April 1959 – 5 August 1960
Major Samuel M. Allen 6 August 1960 – 19 August 1960
Colonel Andrew Scheele 1960-
Colonel John H. Taber 10 July 1961-
Activated 3 January 1968
Colonel John E. Burns 3 January 1968 – 31 August 1968
Colonel William E. Schlarb 1 September 1968 – 15 April 1971
Colonel Raymond P. Bosworth 15 April 1971 – 18 August 1971
Colonel Harry L. Gans 18 August 1971 – 28 December 1972
Colonel Will J. Cummings 29 December 1972 – 20 September 1977
Colonel George R. Lynch 21 September 1977 – 14 February 1979
Colonel Homer B. Moran 15 February 1979 – 30 June 1980
Colonel Edward R. Pedersen 1 July 1980 – 13 August 1981
Colonel John R. Sperandio 14 August 1981 – 12 July 1983
Colonel John S. Timberlake III 13 July 1983 – 12 July 1985
Colonel Henry L. Waters 15 July 1985 – 6 August 1987
Colonel James R. Sawyer 7 August 1987 – 1989
Colonel Eldon H. Ideus 1989-2 August 1991
Colonel David C. Jackson 2 August 1991 – 6 August 1993
Colonel Robert D. Deaderick 6 August 1993 – 1995
Colonel Frank Novier 1995-1997
Colonel Emil F. Meis 1997-1999
Colonel Johhny L. West 1999-19 July 2001
Reorganized and Redesignated 1st Medical Brigade 6 June 2000
Colonel Joseph C. Hightower 19 July 2001 – 18 July 2003
Colonel Terry Walters 18 July 2003 – 5 June 2005
Colonel James Rice 5 June 2005 – 16 August 2007
Colonel Robert Tenhet 16 August 2007 – 1 June 2010
Lieutenant Colonel Lee Roupe (Interim) 1 June 2010 – 23 July 2010
Colonel Bruce W. McVeigh 23 July 2010 – 16 January 2013
Colonel Bertram Providence 16 January 2013 – 27 June 2014
Colonel Allen J. Darden, Sr. 27 June 2014 – Present
Constituted 3 August 1917 in the Regular Army as Headquarters, 1st Sanitary Train, assigned to the 1st Expeditionary Division and organized at New York, New York. (1st Expeditionary Division redesignated 6 July 1918 as 1st Division.)
Redesignated 10 February 1921 as Headquarters, 1st Medical Regiment.
Relieved from the 1st Division, consolidated with Service Company, 1st Medical Regiment (organized during June 1925 at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania by consolidation of Headquarters Detachment, Medical Laboratory Section, and Medical Supply Section, 1st Medical Regiment.
Reorganized and redesignated 8 October 1939 as Headquarters, Headquarters and Service Company, 1st Medical Regiment (Corps).
Redesignated 16 December 1940 Headquarters, Headquarters and Service Company, 1st Medical Regiment (Army).
Reorganized and redesignated 1 September 1943 as Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment, 1st Medical Group.
Inactivated 12 November 1945 in Fort Benning, Georgia
Activated XX 1950 in Frankfurt, Federal Republic of Germany
Inactivated 24 March 1962 in Verdun, France.
Activated 3 January 1968 at Fort Sam Houston, Texas.
Reorganized and redesignated 6 June 2000 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Medical Brigade
Campaign participation credit
- St. Mihiel
- Central Europe
- Defense of Saudi Arabia;
- Liberation and Defense of Kuwait
- Southwest Asia 1990-1991
- Southwest Asia 2003
- Southwest Asia 2006
- Southwest Asia 2010
- Afghanistan 2012
Shoulder sleeve insignia
On a white rectangle arced at top and bottom with a 1/8 inch (.32 cm) yellow border, 2 inches (5.08 cm) in width and 3 inches (7.62 cm) in height overall, a maroon cross throughout bearing a yellow rod entwined by a green snake with a red eye.
Maroon and white are the colors used by the Army Medical Department units; gold is for excellence. The staff of Aesculapius and the maroon cross, symbolize the medical arts and allude to the mission of the Brigade.
The shoulder sleeve insignia was authorized effective 6 June 2000. (TIOH Dwg. No. A-1-844)
Distinctive unit insignia
A maroon shield bearing within a wreath of silver oak leaves the helmet of an esquire charged with the shoulder sleeve insignia of the First Division, a shield with the figure "1." All above a silver scroll bearing the inscription "FORTITUDE AND COMPASSION" in black letters.
Maroon and white (silver) are the colors used for the Army Medical Service. The red numeral "1" on an olive drab shield is the shoulder sleeve insignia of the 1st Division as authorized 31 October 1918, and with which the unit served in World War I. The helmet indicates the military character of the organization.
The distinctive unit insignia was originally approved for the 1st Medical Regiment on 19 December 1923.
It was redesignated and amended to include a motto for the 1st Medical Group on 20 March 1968.
The insignia was amended to correct the symbolism on 26 April 1968.
It was redesignated for the 1st Medical Brigade effective 6 June 2000.
World War I
The 1st Sanitary Train, as originally organized, was composed of two battalions—one motorized and one animal drawn. The companies of the battalions had all been raised well before the start of the war, and were assembled as an organization upon arrival in France. Each battalion was composed of two field hospital companies and two ambulance companies. The first elements of the train—composed of ambulance company 6 (later renumbered 13) and field hospital company 6 (later renumbered 13) began movement to Hoboken, New Jersey, where they embarked for Europe on 14 June 1917, arriving in the port of St. Nazaire on 26 June. On 13 August, field hospital companies 2 and 12 and ambulance companies 2 and 12 landed on 1 and 3 September in Liverpool, England, and later moved to La Harve. On 1 December field hospital company 3 departed Fort Bliss, Texas and ambulance company 3 departed Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, sailed from Hoboken on 5 December, and arrived at St. Nazaire on 22 December, among the last elements of the 1st Division to arrive in France. The 1st Sanitary Train was assembled, finally, in the Gondrecourt training area, where the division trained for combat operations.
The table of organization for a sanitary train called for a total of 927 officers and men. Each ambulance company had 12 ambulances; the animal drawn companies each had 70 mules to pull their ambulances, as well as 24 riding horses. Each field hospital company could hold 236 patients, although it was authorized no nurses; the animal drawn field hospital companies also had 30 mules and 22 riding horses each. In column, the sanitary train stretched for 1,160 yards—more than half a mile.
Ambulance Company 13 of the 1st Sanitary Train was the only American ambulance company operational in the Sommerville sector and furnished litter bearers for duty in the trenches, evacuating patients to Field Hospital 13 (like the ambulance company, an organic unit of the 1st Sanitary Train) and from it to Base Hospital 18 at Bazoilles-sur-Meuse, and to Camp Hospital 1 at Gondrecourt. It did not establish a dressing station, as patients were moved direct by litters and by vehicles from the battalion aid stations to the field hospital. Because of road conditions near the front, the ambulance company’s collecting point was some distance in the rear of the aid stations, so the wounded were carried through the trenches to the battalion aid stations and then back an additional 3 km to the collecting point at Bathelemont.
Field Hospital 13 was the only field hospital established for the 1st Division in the Somerville sector. Half of it, including X-ray and other necessary equipment, was located in a residence and two pavilions at Einville; the other half was in part of a hospital at Dombasle. As the base and camp hospitals to which this hospital was to evacuate were 81 km to the rear by road, patients were retained with the portion of Field Hospital 13 at Einville.
The division surgeon’s office, headquarters of the sanitary train, and headquarters of the train’s field hospital and ambulance sections were at Menil-la-Tour. Medical Department personnel established an aid station at each regimental headquarters and battalion aid stations in battalion areas. The most advanced battalion aid stations were located in dugouts at Seicheprey. Because the village was under direct enemy observation and was shelled frequently, patients had to be evacuated at night, when ambulances could travel the road from Beaumont. Evacuation to the regimental aid stations often required that patients be carried a kilometer or more through trenches which often were knee deep in mud and water. Patients were usually suffering from disease, although a moderate number of men suffering from shell wounds, and on occasion a fairly large number of chemical casualties.
Infantry regimental aid stations were first established Beaumont and Mandres, but on March 1 the station Mandres moved to Bouconville. The aid stations at Beaumont and Bouconville were in basements of partially destroyed buildings and were made provided additional protection from indirect fire using logs, sandbags, and stone. The road between Beaumont and Mandres was especially dangerous, as it was shelled day and night, causing many casualties. The regimental aid station of the 16th Infantry at Mandres had at first functioned also as a dressing station, but on March 1, 1918, this service was taken over by Ambulance Company 2, until they, in turn, were relieved by Ambulance Company 3 on March 27. The station treated chemical casualties as well as other cases and to a limited degree acted as a triage point. It was on the axial road and occupied a building whose walls had been protected by thick sandbags, but occasionally when receiving indirect fire it utilized a dugout which it had constructed nearby. Ambulance Company 13 operated ambulances from Menil-la-Tour and provided litter bearers to forward units until relieved by Ambulance Company 12 on March 21, 1918. That ambulance company, augmented by vehicles from other companies, maintained headquarters and an ambulance park at Menil-la-Tour, dispatching ambulances to the dressing station at Mandres and to forward units. Other ambulances were attached to unit aid stations at important points in rear areas of the sector.
Evacuation Ambulance Company 1 from the Services of Supply maintained two ambulances at Field Hospital 13 for evacuation to Sebastopol, where twenty ambulances were available for use during periods of heavy casualties.
The different ambulance circuits, in forward and rear areas, were established for dealing with battle casualties, with a third circuit for the routine sick. The front circuit was maintained by Ford ambulances working forward from Mandres and returning to deliver patients to the dressing station there. Pertaining to it were emergency ambulances stationed at Beaumont, Rambucourt, and Bouconville, and at times at Seicheprey, with reserve at Mandres. The advance point to which ambulances could go by daylight was on the Beaumont-Bouconville road paralleling the front line and 2 km from it. At night ambulances could be sent forward to Xivray-Marvoisin and Seicheprey, 1 km from the front line. When circumstances warranted the risk, ambulances stationed at Seicheprey could evacuate from Seicheprey by day, but not as a routine measure. The rear circuit of heavy G. M. C. ambulances began at Mandres, where patients were carried to a fixed evacuation hospital. In order to cut down transportation, patients who could stand the longer trip to Toul or to Sebastopol were sent directly from Mandres and were not required to stop at the triage at Menil-la-Tour. Patients were distributed from Mandres as follows: (1) Seriously wounded and sick who could not stand long ambulance transportation, to Menil-la-Tour; (2) chemical agent casualties to Menil-la-Tour; (3) surgical cases to Sebastopol; (4) and sick and contagious diseases to Toul. A few ambulances for this circuit were maintained at Mandres, with reserve at Menil-la-Tour. At times of expected periods of high casualties, the ambulance park was advanced to Hamonville, and ambulances and trucks were dispatched to Mandres as needed.
In quiet times a routine circuit of ambulances was maintained, daily calls being made at all aid stations within the division area that could be reached for the collection of sick and slightly wounded to be triaged at Menil-la-Tour, allowing placement of ambulances posted at outlying aid stations for emergency use.
Field Hospital 13 became operational on January 17, 1918 at Menil-la-Tour, in barracks taken over from a French field hospital and equipped for the care of 200 patients. This served at first as a divisional hospital and, after hospitals in the rear began functioning as a triage, for the reception of chemical casualties and some ill patients until relieved about March 31 by a field hospital of the 26th Division. The location was poorly suited for a hospital because of its proximity to a large supply dump and railhead subject to indirect fire. Several attacks occurred and missiles impacted within a hundred yards of the hospital, but no artillery fire was ever received.
Patients began to be received immediately after arrival of the 1st Division in the sector. Seven wounded were admitted on January 21, and sixty-two chemical casualties on the 26th, the first chemical casualties in the division. Of the 674 patients received by Field Hospital 13, 323—nearly half of all patients treated—were due to chemical agents.
Field Hospital 12, after being held in reserve, became operational on January 23 at Sebastopol in large, permanent, stone barracks. It functioned as an evacuation and surgical hospital until relieved on February 4 by Evacuation Hospital 1, which then assumed responsibility for care of the seriously wounded. The field hospital personnel had been previously augmented by details from Ambulance Companies 3 and 13. Field Hospital 12 moved February 6 to a large stone barracks—Caserne la Marche—at Toul, where it established a 400-bed hospital for the divisional sick. Since the barracks were large and readily adapted for use as a hospital, the field hospitals here supplemented their normal equipment with the addition of large quantities of supplies suitable for the proper maintenance of a semi-permanent hospital. Field Hospital 2 arrived at Toul on February 18 and established an annex to Field Hospital 12 for the care of contagious cases. It operated until April 2, when the annex was turned over to a hospital of the 26th Division.
Field Hospitals 12 and 13 evacuated by train from Toul to base hospitals in the rear those cases which did not require surgical attention at Evacuation Hospital 1. This continued until about April 3, when the facilities were turned over to hospitals of the 26th Division. In this sector Field Hospital 13 received 889 patients (not including those triaged directly to other hospitals) and Field Hospitals 12 and 2 received a combined total of 2,482 patients. As Evacuation Hospital 1 received most of the wounded, their patients were primarily those that were ill, and chemical casualties.
The sick rate of the division was three times that for battle casualties. More than two-thirds of those cases were minor, and most of the patients were returned to duty in a short time directly from the field hospitals. The prevailing diseases in the division in the sector were respiratory or intestinal. Sporadic cases of cerebrospinal meningitis, diphtheria, scarlet fever, mumps, and measles occurred, but no epidemic developed. A camp for venereal cases was established southeast of Raulecourt, and patients who were able to do so were put to work as laborers on road construction and similar heavy work.
The medical supply unit of the division, with a large stock, was maintained at Demange-aux-Eaux in the division rear. An advance medical supply depot was operated by Field Hospital 13 at Menil-la-Tour for issue to all organizations in advance areas. An advance subdepot was maintained at the dressing station at Mandres, for the distribution of supplies by ambulance or runners to front-line aid stations.
The 1st Division was relieved April 1–3, 1918, by the 26th Division and proceeded to the neighborhood of Chaumont-en-Vexin, where headquarters were established April 8. For the next 10 days the division was trained in open warfare, activities consisting chiefly of brigade and division maneuvers. Regiments evacuated the disabled directly into the French hospitals at Gisors.
The offensive launched by the Germans on March 21, 1918 placed the Allies in a desperate situation. The lack of complete cooperation among the Allies on the Western Front had been appreciated, and the question of preparation to meet the crisis had already received attention of the supreme war council. Reserves were not available and on March 28, the 1st Division was placed at the disposal of the allied high command, starting movement toward the battle front on April 17. On April 25 it took over the Cantigny sector 4.9 km west of Montdidier, relieving French troops and becoming a part of the French First Army. During the first six weeks that the division remained in this line the sector was very active; the remaining period was active. Battery positions were made untenable by high-explosive and chemical shells. Air raids were frequent and severe.
On May 27, 1918, the Germans attacked Chateau-Thierry, and when the French appreciated how serious and how successful the attack was they began to withdraw both their air squadrons and supporting artillery from the Cantigny sector. On the 28th the 1st Division made the first sustained American offensive of the war and captured the village of Cantigny—a date later chosen by the 1st Medical Regiment as its Organization Day. Because of determined German efforts to retake the salient, losses were greater after the attack than during it. Beauvais, where a Red Cross hospital was located 38.4 km to the rear, suffered very severely. Hospitals were not immune from attack, and operation of the evacuation system, particularly at night, was very difficult.
After the Armistice was signed, the 1st Sanitary train marched with the rest of the 1st Division to the Coblenz Bridgehead as part of the US Third Army, which served as part of the Army of Occupation.
Supporting the Medical Field Service School
In support of the 1929 class of the Officer Basic Course at the Medical Field Service School, the Regiment accompanied the students—all officers—on their field training exercise, this year conducted on the battlefield at Gettysburg. Students worked problems involving terrain exercises, while the 1st Medical Regiment then demonstrated the approved school solution.
By 1930, the regiment was well integrated into the activities of the school. The regiment was maintained at "full peacetime strength," which equated to the regimental headquarters, a service company, a hospital company, a collecting company, a veterinary company, and two ambulance companies—one motorized and one animal drawn. In addition to serving as the demonstration unit for the school, most of the officers and noncommissioned officers who taught there were drawn from the ranks of the regiment, and senior officers in the regiment frequently moved into department directors in the school after completing their time in the regiment. The Medical Equipment Laboratory, charged with studying and developing equipment and transportation for medical department troops and installations frequently turned to the regiment for assistance in testing equipment in the field, particularly for battalion aid stations and equipment used by the medical regiments of the divisions.
The Ohio river floods, 1937
In January and February 1937, the Ohio and Mississippi rivers flooded over 12,700 square miles in twelve states. As part of the Federal response, The 1st Medical Regiment's Company G (Hospital), under the command of Captain Alvin L. Gorby (who would later command the regiment, and who retired as a major general) arrived by train on 30 January. The company included six medical corps officers and 93 enlisted men, with another 21 enlisted and ten ambulances from the regiment's Company E (Motor Ambulance), who were sent to Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana to provide support in that area. Inspecting a school building which had been used as an improvised hospital for the prior week by local volunteers, he found it an excellent facility with a modern structure, indoor plumbing, and a cafeteria. Moving his soldiers into rooms on the top floor, he quickly established hospital operations, reorganizing what he found on arrival was an "appalling lack of organization." When the water pressure proved to be inadequate, he had his troops dig latrines on the school grounds and had water for other purposes trucked in.
Once that hospital was up and running, the company assumed responsibility for a typhoid inoculation station, then repaired and reorganized a second school which was being used as a segregated facility for black patients. During the 13 days the company operated in Louisville, they provided more than 5,000 inoculations and provided over 2,000 patient-days of care in the two improvised hospitals they were running. This relief operation would be the Army's last major domestic relief operation before the start of the World War II.
During most of September, 1950 the 1st Medical Group participated in a major exercise called "Rainbow." Following spring 1950 a command post exercise named "Shamrock," this exercise saw most of the US medical units in Germany deploy their headquarters elements to the field, as well as sending as many operational elements as could be spared. Although medical play within the Communications Zone was simulated, soldiers role playing as patients were moved between the units in the field in Germany. In all, 40% of all Medical Corps and 20% of all Nurse Corps officers in Germany participated, with most units, according to published reports, rated as "Excellent" in their performance.
Fort Sam Houston
One of the responsibilities of the 1st Medical Group and its subordinate units was to serve as a test-bed for the Medical Equipment Test and Evaluation Division of the United States Army Medical Materiel Agency. Established in 1964 and based at Fort Sam Houston, the test and evaluation division was responsible for testing new medical products and equipment for suitability for the Army's use. Much as they had done at Carlisle Barracks decades earlier, the 1st Medical Group's units at Fort Sam Houston, including a MUST equipped combat support hospital and an air ambulance company, provided a readily available platform for testing equipment under field conditions.
1 February 1945
1 March 1945
23 March 1945
1 May 1945
Operation Desert Shield
Operation Desert Storm
Units of the 1st Medical Brigade: