| Nazi Germany|
| Anti-partisan operations|
The 1st Cossack Cavalry Division (German: 1. Kosaken-Kavallerie-Division) was a Russian Cossack division of the German Army that served during World War II. It was created on the Eastern Front mostly out of Don Cossacks already serving in the Wehrmacht, those who escaped from the advancing Red Army and Soviet POWs. In 1945, the division was transferred to the Waffen SS, becoming the 1st SS Cossack Cavalry Division (1. SS-Kosaken-Kavallerie-Division). At the end of the war, the unit ceased to exist.
1st Cossack Cavalry Division Wikipedia
Upon the formation of the unit in April 1943, the Division was dispatched to Croatia, where they were placed under the command of the Second Panzer Army and were used to provide rear area security to the army.
The Division's first fighting engagement was on October 12, 1943, when the unit was dispatched against Yugoslav partisans in Fruška Gora Mountains. In the operation the Cossacks aided by 15 tanks and 1 armoured car captured the village of Beocin with the partisan HQ. Subsequently, the unit was used to protect the Zagreb-Belgrade railroad and the Sava valley. Several regiments of the division took part in several anti-partisan operations and guarded the Sarajevo railroad against the partisans. As part of a wide anti-partisan operation Napfkuchen the Cossack division was transferred to Croatia, where it fought against partisans and chetniks in 1944.
While in Croatia, the division quickly established a reputation for undisciplined and ruthless behavior, not only towards the partisans, but also towards the civilian population, prompting the Croatian authorities to complain to the Germans and finally to Hitler personally. Besides raping women, killing people, and plundering and burning towns suspected of harboring partisans and partisan supporters, the division used telegraph poles along the railroad tracks as a warning to the partisans and others. During its first two months of deployment in Croatia, special divisional court martials imposed at least twenty death sentences in each of the four regiments for related crimes.
The Cossacks' first engagement against the Red Army happened in December 1944 near Pitomača. The fighting resulted in Soviet withdrawal from the area. In January 1945, the 1st Cossack Division together with the 2nd Cossack Division was transferred to the Waffen-SS. As the 1. SS-Kosaken-Kavallerie-Division it became part of the newly formed XV SS Cossack Cavalry Corps.
At the end of the war, Cossacks of the division retreated into Austria and surrendered to British troops. They were promised safety by the British only to be lied to and removed from the compound and transferred to the USSR.Lieutenant-General Helmuth von Pannwitz
Colonel Hans-Joachim von Schultz
Colonel von Baath
Colonel Alexander von Boesse
Colonel Konstantin Wagner
In 1944, the division was composed of the following units:1st (Don) Cossack Cavalry Regiment
2nd (Ural) Cossack Cavalry Regiment
3rd (Sswodno) Cossack Cavalry Regiment
Cossack Horse Artillery Regiment Don
4th (Kuban) Cossack Cavalry Regiment
5th (Don) Cossack Cavalry Regiment
6th (Terek) Cossack Cavalry Regiment
Cossack Horse Artillery Regiment Kuban
55th Reconnaissance Battalion
55th (Kuban) Cossack Horse Artillery Regiment
1st Cossack Engineer Battalion
55th Cossack Engineer Battalion
1st Signal Battalion