Puneet Varma (Editor)

19th United States Congress

Updated on
Share on FacebookTweet on TwitterShare on LinkedInShare on Reddit
Senate President  John C. Calhoun (DR)
Senate Majority:  Jackson Men
House Speaker:  John W. Taylor (DR)
House Majority:  Anti-Jackson
19th United States Congress
Senate Pres. pro tem:  John Gaillard (DR) Nathaniel Macon (DR)
Members:  48 Senators 213 Representatives 3 Non-voting members

The Nineteenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1825, to March 4, 1827, during the first two years of the administration of U.S. President John Quincy Adams. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Fourth Census of the United States in 1820. The Senate had a majority of Jackson Men, while the House had an Anti-Jackson (pro-Adams) majority.


Major events

  • March 4, 1825: John Quincy Adams inaugurated as President of the United States
  • October 26, 1825: The Erie Canal opened, providing passage from Albany, New York, to Buffalo and Lake Erie.
  • July 4, 1826: Both Thomas Jefferson and John Adams died on the 50th Anniversary of America's Independence
  • Major legislation

  • [Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
  • Treaties signed

  • November 7, 1825: Treaty of St. Louis: 1,400 Missouri Shawnees were forcibly relocated from Missouri to Kansas
  • January 24, 1826: Treaty of Washington between the United States government and the Creek National Council, in which they ceded much of their land in Georgia
  • Party summary

    The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this congress. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.


  • President: John C. Calhoun (J)
  • President pro tempore: John Gaillard (J), until December 4, 1825
  • Nathaniel Macon (J), from May 20, 1826
  • House of Representatives

  • Speaker: John W. Taylor (A)
  • Members

    This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.

    Skip to House of Representatives, below


    Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1826; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1828; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1830.

    Changes in membership

    This count reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.


  • replacements: 7
  • Adams (A): 3-seat net gain
  • Jacksonian (J): no net change
  • deaths: 4
  • resignations: 6
  • interim appointments: 4
  • Total seats with changes: 13
  • House of Representatives

  • replacements: 11
  • Anti-Jackson: 1 seat net gain
  • Jackson Men: 1 seat net loss
  • deaths: 5
  • resignations: 10
  • contested election: 1
  • Total seats with changes: 16
  • Committees

    Lists of committees and their party leaders.


  • Agriculture
  • Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate
  • Bankruptcy (Select)
  • Claims
  • Commerce
  • Debt Imprisonment Abolition (Select)
  • Distributing Public Revenue Among the States (Select)
  • District of Columbia
  • Finance
  • Foreign Relations
  • French Spoilations (Select)
  • Georgia and the Creek Indians (Select)
  • Indian Affairs
  • Judiciary
  • Manufactures
  • Military Affairs
  • Militia
  • Naval Affairs
  • Pensions
  • Post Office and Post Roads
  • Private Land Claims
  • Public Lands
  • Roads and Canals (Select)
  • Tariff Regulation (Select)
  • Whole
  • House of Representatives

  • Accounts
  • Agriculture
  • American Colonization Society (Select)
  • Apportionment of Representatives (Select)
  • Bills of Exchange (Select)
  • Claims
  • Commerce
  • District of Columbia
  • Elections
  • Expenditures in the Navy Department
  • Expenditures in the Post Office Department
  • Expenditures in the State Department
  • Expenditures in the Treasury Department
  • Expenditures in the War Department
  • Expenditures on Public Buildings
  • Foreign Affairs
  • Indian Affairs
  • Manufactures
  • Military Affairs
  • Military Pensions
  • Naval Affairs
  • Post Office and Post Roads
  • Public Expenditures
  • Public Lands
  • Revisal and Unfinished Business
  • Revolutionary Claims
  • Rules (Select)
  • Standards of Official Conduct
  • Territories
  • Ways and Means
  • Whole
  • Joint committees

  • Enrolled Bills
  • Police and Preservation of the Capital
  • Employees

  • Architect of the Capitol: Charles Bulfinch
  • Librarian of Congress: George Watterston
  • Senate

  • Chaplain: William Staughton (Baptist), elected December 12, 1825
  • William Ryland (Methodist), elected December 8, 1826
  • Secretary of the Senate: Charles Cutts, until December 12, 1825
  • Walter Lowrie, elected December 12, 1825
  • Sergeant at Arms: Mountjoy Bayly
  • House of Representatives

  • Chaplain: Reuben Post (Presbyterian)
  • Clerk: Matthew St. Clair Clarke
  • Doorkeeper: Benjamin Birch
  • Sergeant at Arms: John O. Dunn
  • References

    19th United States Congress Wikipedia