Girish Mahajan

1969 in science

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1969 in science

The year 1969 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.


Astronomy and space exploration

  • January 15 – The Soviet Union launches Soyuz 5.
  • March 3 – Apollo program: NASA launches Apollo 9 to test the lunar module.
  • March 13 – Apollo program: Apollo 9 returns safely to Earth after testing the Lunar Module.
  • May 16 – Venera program: Venera 5, a Soviet spaceprobe, lands on Venus.
  • May 17 – Venera program: Soviet Venera 6 begins to descend into Venus', atmosphere sending back atmospheric data before being crushed by pressure.
  • May 18 – Apollo program: Apollo 10 launches.
  • May 22 – Apollo program: Apollo 10's lunar module flies within 15,400 m of the Moon's surface.
  • May 26 – Apollo program: Apollo 10 returns to Earth after a successful eight-day test of all the components needed for the upcoming first manned Moon landing.
  • July 20 – Apollo program: The human race, represented by Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, lands on the Moon. Apollo 11 lifted off for the Moon on July 16 and returned safely on July 24.
  • August 5 – Mariner program: Mariner 7 makes its closest fly-by of Mars (3,524 kilometers).
  • September 20 – Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko is identified by Soviet astronomers Klim Churyumov and Svetlana Gerasimenko.
  • November 14 – Apollo program: NASA launches Apollo 12, the second manned mission to the surface of the Moon (landed on the Moon on November 19).
  • November 19 – Apollo program: Apollo 12 astronauts Charles Conrad and Alan Bean land at Oceanus Procellarum ("Ocean of Storms") and become the third and fourth humans to walk on the Moon.
  • Biology

  • Thomas D. Brock and Hudson Freeze of Indiana University publish their findings on hyperthermophilic bacteria, most notably Thermus aquaticus, a thermophilic bacterium species living at a temperature of 60-80°C in a hot spring at Yellowstone National Park. T. aquaticus (Taq) later becomes a standard source of enzymes able to withstand higher temperatures than those from E. Coli and is significant in the history of polymerase chain reaction.
  • Last Przewalski's Horse sighted in the wild, in Mongolia.
  • Chemistry

  • Dorothy Hodgkin and colleagues at the University of Oxford determine the structure of insulin.
  • Computer science

  • April 7 – RFC 1, the first Request for Comments document from the Internet Engineering Task Force, is published.
  • October 29 – The first ARPANET message is sent, between computers at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute.
  • November 21 – The first permanent ARPANET link is established, between Interface Message Processors at UCLA and Stanford.
  • The laser printer is invented at Xerox by Gary Starkweather.
  • Medicine

  • April 4 – Surgeons Denton Cooley and Domingo Liotta implant the first temporary artificial heart.
  • Reported as being the year the first strain of the AIDS virus (HIV) migrates to the United States via Haiti.
  • The condition diffuse panbronchiolitis is named, in Japan.
  • International adoption of the diagnostic term 'Sudden infant death syndrome'.
  • Meteorology

  • Late January – Eugene, Oregon, has a record snowfall of 3 feet in 3 days: a pineapple express moves into the region with a shot of cold air, followed by some snow showers.
  • Herbert Saffir and Bob Simpson develop the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale.
  • Paleontology

  • John Ostrom publishes his findings on the dinosaur Deinonychus, describing it as being a small, agile species closely related to the birds.
  • Physics

  • Yoichiro Nambu and Leonard Susskind make the first presentations of string theory.
  • Spain withdraws from CERN.
  • Awards

  • Nobel Prizes
  • Physics – Murray Gell-Mann
  • Chemistry – Derek Harold Richard Barton, Odd Hassel
  • Medicine – Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey, Salvador Luria
  • Turing Award – Marvin Minsky
  • Births

  • October 7 – Karen L. Nyberg, American space engineer and astronaut.
  • December 16 – Adam Riess, American astrophysicist, Nobel laureate in Physics in 2011.
  • December 28 – Linus Torvalds, Finnish computer programmer.
  • Thomas Reardon, American computer programmer.
  • Deaths

  • March 3 – Elizabeth Laird (born 1874), Canadian physicist.
  • May 14 – Walter Pitts (born 1923), American logician and cognitive psychologist.
  • June 24 – Willy Ley (born 1906), German American scientific populariser.
  • August 8 – Otmar von Verschuer (born 1896), German eugenicist.
  • August 17 – Otto Stern (born 1888), German physicist, Nobel laureate in Physics in 1943.
  • September 16 – Henry Fairfield Osborn, Jr. (born 1887), American conservationist.
  • September 24 – Warren Sturgis McCulloch (born 1898), American neurophysiologist and cybernetician.
  • October 21 – Wacław Sierpiński (born 1882), Polish mathematician.
  • November 12 – William F. Friedman (born 1891), Russian American cryptanalyst.
  • References

    1969 in science Wikipedia

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