Monarch – King George VI
Governor-General – (Sir) William McKell
Prime Minister – Robert Menzies
Premier of New South Wales – James McGirr
Premier of Queensland – Ned Hanlon
Premier of South Australia – Thomas Playford IV
Premier of Tasmania – Robert Cosgrove
Premier of Victoria – John McDonald
Premier of Western Australia – Ross McLarty
Governor of New South Wales – Sir John Northcott
Governor of Queensland – Sir John Lavarack
Governor of South Australia – Sir Charles Norrie
Governor of Tasmania – Sir Hugh Binney (until 8 May), then Sir Ronald Cross, 1st Baronet (from 22 August)
Governor of Victoria – Sir Dallas Brooks
Governor of Western Australia – Sir James Mitchell (until 1 July), then Sir Charles Gairdner (from 6 November)
1 January – The 50th anniversary of Australian federation is celebrated.
19 February – Jean Lee becomes the last woman to be hanged in Australia, when she, Robert Clayton and Norman Andrews are executed in Melbourne for the murder of a 73-year-old man.
1 March – The Bank of Australasia merges with the Union Bank of Australia to form the ANZ Bank.
9 March – The High Court of Australia rules in the case Australian Communist Party v Commonwealth that the Communist Party Dissolution Bill 1950, passed by the parliament to ban the Communist Party of Australia, was unconstitutional.
19 March – The Governor-General, William McKell, issues a double dissolution of parliament for the second time in its history, citing the Senate's referral of the Commonwealth Bank Bill as a "failure to pass" the bill.
12 April – Conscription begins as the first call-up notice is issued under the National Service Act (1951), requiring Australian 18-year-old males to undergo compulsory military training.
28 April – A federal election is held. The Liberal government of Robert Menzies retains power.
8 June – The first lessons of the School of the Air are broadcast from the Royal Flying Doctor Service in Adelaide.
16 August – The Australian Financial Review is first published.
1 September – The Anzus Treaty, between Australia, New Zealand and the United States, is signed.
9 September – Australia signs the Treaty of San Francisco, formalising peace with Japan.
22 September – A federal referendum is held, proposing to alter the Australian Constitution to allow the banning of the Communist Party. The referendum was not carried.
4 October – Francis McEncroe sells the first Chiko Rolls at the Wagga Wagga agricultural show.
15 October - A De Havilland Dove aircraft crashes near Kalgoorlie killing all 7 on board.
13 November – William McKell is gazetted a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George, becoming the only Governor-General of Australia to be knighted during their term.
Ivor Hele wins the Archibald Prize with his portrait of Laurie Thomas
Justin O'Brien wins the inaugural Blake Prize for Religious Art with his work The Virgin Enthroned
5 March – Gordon Stanley wins the men's national marathon title, clocking 2:59:44.6 in Hobart.
Victoria wins the Sheffield Shield
Australia defeats England 4-1 in The Ashes
The 1951 French rugby league tour of Australia and New Zealand is conducted
Bledisloe Cup: won by the All Blacks
Brisbane Rugby League premiership: Souths defeated Easts 20-10
New South Wales Rugby League premiership: South Sydney defeated Manly-Warringah 42-14
South Australian National Football League premiership: won by Port Adelaide
Victorian Football League premiership: Geelong defeated Essendon 81-70
Australian Open: won by Peter Thomson
Australian PGA Championship: won by Norman Von Nida
Basha Felika wins the Caulfield Cup
Bronton wins the Cox Plate
Delta wins the Melbourne Cup
The Australian Grand Prix was held at Narrogin and won by Warwick Pratley driving a George Reed Special
Australian Open men's singles: Dick Savitt defeats Ken McGregor 6-3 2–6 6-3 6-1
Australian Open women's singles: Nancye Wynne Bolton defeats Thelma Coyne Long 6-1 7-5
Davis Cup: Australia defeats the United States 3-2 in the 1951 Davis Cup final
US Open: Frank Sedgman wins the Men's Singles
Wimbledon: Ken McGregor and Frank Sedgman win the Men's Doubles
Margaret Rintoul takes line honours and Struen Marie wins on handicap in the Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race
19 January – Charles Blunt, politician
20 January – Clyde Sefton, road cyclist
26 February – Wayne Goss, Premier of Queensland
29 April – Jon Stanhope, Chief Minister of the ACT
29 May – Don Baird, pole vaulter
4 July – John Alexander, tennis player and politician
6 July – Geoffrey Rush, actor
31 July – Evonne Goolagong Cawley, tennis player
5 August – John Jarratt, actor
6 August – Daryl Somers, television personality
30 August – Danny Clark, track cyclist and road bicycle racer
9 September – Alexander Downer, politician
27 September – Geoff Gallop, Premier of Western Australia
1 December – Doug Mulray, radio personality
18 December – Andy Thomas, astronaut
22 December – Jan Stephenson, professional golfer
29 January – Frank Tarrant (born 1880), cricketer
18 April – Daisy Bates (born 1863), journalist and social worker
27 May – Thomas Blamey (born 1884), soldier
13 June – Ben Chifley (born 1885), Prime Minister of Australia
1951 in Australia Wikipedia
| George VI|
| William McKell|