1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (dominical letter BA) of the Gregorian calendar, the 1944th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 944th year of the 2nd millennium, the 44th year of the 20th century, and the 5th year of the 1940s decade.
Below, events of World War II have the "WWII" prefix.January 2 – WWII:
Free French General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny is appointed to command French Army B, part of the Sixth United States Army Group in North Africa.
Landing at Saidor: 13,000 US and Australian troops land on Papua New Guinea in an attempt to cut off a Japanese retreat.
January 8 – WWII: Philippine Commonwealth troops enter the province of Ilocos Sur in northern Luzon and attack Japanese forces.
President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt proposes a Second Bill of Rights for social and economic security in his State of the Union address.
Nazi German administration expanded Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp into larger and standalone 'Konzentrationslager Plaszow bei Krakau'.
January 12 – Winston Churchill and Charles de Gaulle begin a 2-day wartime conference in Marrakech.
Battle of Monte Cassino: U.S. Fifth Army commanded by Lieutenant-General Mark W. Clark arrive on the River Garigliano and begin their attack against the Gustav Line south of Rome. The French Expeditionary Corps under command of General Alphonse Juin moves into the mountains north of Monte Cassino.
January 14 – WWII: Soviet troops start the offensive at Leningrad and Novgorod.
WWII: The 27th Polish Home Army Infantry Division is re-created, marking the start of Operation Tempest by the Polish Home Army.
1944 San Juan earthquake: An earthquake hits San Juan, Argentina, killing an estimated 10,000 people in the worst natural disaster in Argentina's history.
January 17 – WWII:
British forces in Italy cross the Garigliano river.
The Battle of Monte Cassino begins in Italy.
The Soviet Union ceases production of the Mosin–Nagant 1891/30 sniper rifle.
Meat rationing ends in Australia.
January 20 – WWII:
The Royal Air Force drops 2,300 tons of bombs on Berlin.
The United States 36th Infantry Division, in Italy, attempts to cross the Rapido River.
January 22 – WWII: Operation Shingle: The Allies begin the assault on Anzio, Italy. The U.S. 45th Infantry Division stand their ground at Anzio against violent assaults for 4 months.
January 27 – WWII: The 2-year Siege of Leningrad is lifted.
January 29 – WWII:
Koniuchy massacre: Soviet and Jewish partisans kill at least 38 villagers in Koniuchy, Poland (modern-day Kaniūkai, Lithuania).
Light cruiser HMS Spartan (95) is sunk by a Henschel Hs 293 guided missile from a German aircraft off Anzio, western Italy, with the loss of 46.
January 30 – WWII:
The Battle of Cisterna opens as United States Army Rangers attempt to break out of the Anzio beachhead.
United States troops invade Majuro, Marshall Islands.
January 31 – WWII: Battle of Kwajalein: American forces land on Kwajalein Atoll and other islands in the Japanese-held Marshall Islands.
February 1 – WWII: Pacific War – United States troops land in the Marshall Islands.
February 2 – The first issue of Human Events is published in Washington, D.C.
February 3 – WWII: United States troops capture the Marshall Islands.
February 7 – WWII: At Anzio, German forces launch a counteroffensive.
February 8 – WWII:
2,765 drown when USS Snook torpedoes Lima Maru.
2,670 drown when HMS Sportsman torpedoes Petrella.
February 14 – WWII: An anti-Japanese revolt breaks out on Java.
February 15 – WWII – Battle of Monte Cassino: The monastery atop Monte Cassino is destroyed by Allied bombing.
February 17 – WWII: Pacific War – The Battle of Eniwetok begins when U.S. forces invade the atoll in the Marshall Islands.
February 18 – WWII: HMS Penelope torpedoed by the German U-boat. 417 of the crew, including the captain, went down with the ship; 206 survived.
February 20 – WWII:
The "Big Week" begins with American bomber raids on German aircraft manufacturing centers.
The United States takes Eniwetok Island.
February 22 – United States Strategic Air Forces in Europe organized from the Eighth Air Force's strategic planning staff; subsuming strategic planning for all US Army Air Forces in Europe and Africa.
February 23 – WWII:
The Chechen and Ingush are forcibly deported to Central Asia.
Battle of Eniwetok concludes when U.S. forces secure the last islands in the Eniwetok Atoll.
February 24 – WWII: 7,998 drown when USS Rasher torpedoes Ryūsei Maru and Tango Maru.
Kurt Gerron begins shooting the Nazi propaganda film, Theresienstadt in Theresienstadt concentration camp. He and many others who featured in it are transferred to Auschwitz and gassed upon the film's completion.
First woman appointed to the substantive rank of captain in the United States Navy Nurse Corps, Sue S. Dauser.
February 29 – WWII: Pacific War – Admiralty Islands campaign (Operation Brewer) opens when U.S. forces land on Los Negros Island in the Admiralty Islands.
Austrian-born economist Friedrich Hayek publishes his book The Road to Serfdom in London.
March 1 – WWII:
USS Tarawa and USS Kearsarge are laid down.
An anti-fascist strike begins in northern Italy.
2,495 drown when USS Trout torpedoes Sakito Maru.
Balvano train disaster: A train stalls inside a railway tunnel outside Salerno, Italy; 521 choke to death.
The 16th Academy Awards ceremony is held, the first Oscar ceremony held at a large public venue, Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood. Casablanca (directed by Michael Curtiz), wins the Best Picture award.
March 3 – WWII: The Order of Nakhimov and the Order of Ushakov are instituted in the USSR.
March 4 – In Ossining, New York, Louis Buchalter, the leader of 1930s crime syndicate Murder, Inc., is executed at Sing Sing, along with Emanuel Weiss, and Louis Capone.
March 6 – WWII: Soviet Army planes attack Narva, Estonia, destroying almost the entire baroque old town.
March 9 – WWII: Soviet Army planes attack Tallinn, Estonia, killing 757 and leaving 25,000 homeless.
In Britain, the prohibition on married women working as teachers is lifted.
Resistance leader Joop Westerweel is arrested while returning to the Netherlands having escorted a group of Jewish children to safety in Spain.
March 12 – WWII: the Political Committee of National Liberation is created in Greece.
WWII: Battle of Monte Cassino: Allied aircraft bomb the monastery and an assault is staged.
WWII: The National Council of the French Resistance approves the Resistance programme.
In Sweden, the 1864 law which had criminalized homosexuality is abolished.
The last eruption of Mount Vesuvius in Italy kills 26 and causes thousands to flee their homes.
WWII: The Nazis execute almost 400 prisoners, Soviet citizens and anti-fascist Romanians at Rîbnița.
March 19 – WWII: German forces occupy Hungary in Operation Margarethe.
March 20 – WWII: RAF Flight Sergeant Nicholas Alkemade's bomber is hit over Germany, and he has to bail out without a parachute from a height of over 4,000 meters. Tree branches interrupt his fall and he lands safely on deep snow.
March 23 – WWII: Members of the Italian Resistance attack Nazis marching in Via Rasella, killing 33.
March 24 – WWII:
Ardeatine massacre: 335 Italians are killed, including 75 Jews and over 200 members of the Italian Resistance from various groups, in Rome.
In the Polish village of Markowa, German police kill Józef and Wiktoria Ulm, their six children and eight Jews they were hiding.
The "Great Escape": 76 Royal Air Force prisoners of war escape by tunnel "Harry" from Stalag Luft III this night. Only three men, two Norwegians and a Dutchman, return to the UK; of those recaptured, fifty are executed.
April 2 – WWII: Ascq massacre members of the 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend shoot 85 civilians suspected of blowing up their train on its approach to the Gare d'Ascq in France.
April 4 – WWII: An Allied surveillance aircraft of 60 Squadron SAAF photographs part of Auschwitz concentration camp.
April 5 – Rudolf Vrba and Alfréd Wetzler escape from Auschwitz concentration camp.
April 14 – Bombay Explosion: The freighter SS Fort Stikine, carrying a mixed cargo of ammunition, cotton bales and gold, explodes in harbour at Bombay (India), sinking surrounding ships and killing around 800 people.
April 19 – WWII: The Japanese launch the Operation Ichi-Go offensive in central and south China.
The Holocaust: SS-Obersturmbannführer Adolf Eichmann opens "blood for goods" negotiations with Joel Brand to offer the release of thousands of Jews from eastern Europe to the Hungarian Aid and Rescue Committee in exchange for supplies for the German Eastern Front.
The United Negro College Fund is incorporated in the U.S.
Kidnap of General Kreipe on Crete, Greece.
WWII: 2,649 drown when USS Jack torpedoes Yoshida Maru No. 1.
April 28 – WWII: Allied convoy T4, forming part of amphibious Exercise Tiger (a full-scale rehearsal for the Normandy landings) in Start Bay off the Devon coast of England, is attacked by E-boats, resulting in the deaths of 749 American servicemen from LSTs.
May – No Exit published by Jean-Paul Sartre.
May 1 – WWII: Two hundred Communist prisoners are shot by the Germans at Kaisariani in Athens, Greece in reprisal for the killing of General Franz Krech by partisans at Molaoi.
May 5 – WWII: Mohandas Gandhi is released in India.
May 9 – WWII: In the Ukrainian city of Sevastopol, Soviet troops completely drive out German forces, who had been ordered by Hitler to “fight to the last man.”
May 12 – WWII: Soviet troops finalize the liberation of the Crimea.
May 14 – The Holocaust: Predominantly Muslim Albanian troops of the 21st Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Skanderbeg (1st Albanian) round up 281 Jews in Pristina and hand them over to the Germans for transportation to Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.
May 15–July 8 – The Holocaust: Deportation of Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz and other Nazi concentration camps.
May 18 – WWII:
Battle of Monte Cassino: The Germans evacuate Monte Cassino and Allied forces led by Władysław Anders from Polish II Corps, take the stronghold after a struggle that has claimed 20,000 lives.
Deportation of the Crimean Tatars by the government of the Soviet Union.
May 24 – WWII: Six LSTs are accidentally destroyed and 163 men killed in Pearl Harbor's West Loch disaster.
May 30 – Princess Charlotte Louise Juliette Louvet Grimaldi of Monaco, heir to the throne, resigns from her rights in favor of her son Prince Rainier Louis Henri Maxence Bertrand Grimaldi, later reigning Prince Rainier III of Monaco.
May 31 – WWII: Destroyer escort USS England (DE-635) sinks the sixth Japanese submarine in two weeks. This anti-submarine warfare performance remains unmatched through the twentieth century.
WWII: The BBC transmits a coded message (the first line of the poem "Chanson d'automne" by Paul Verlaine) to the French Resistance, warning that the invasion of Europe is imminent.
Two K-class blimps of the United States Navy complete the first transatlantic crossing by non-rigid airships, from the U.S. to French Morocco with two stops.
June 2 – WWII: The provisional French government is established.
June 3 – Hans Asperger publishes his paper on Asperger syndrome.
June 4 – WWII:
Rome falls to the Allies, the first Axis capital to fall.
A hunter-killer group of the United States Navy captures the German submarine U-505, marking the first time a U.S. Navy vessel has captured an enemy vessel at sea since the 19th century. Some significant intelligence data is acquired.
June 5 – WWII:
The German navy's Enigma messages are decoded almost in real time.
British Group Captain James Stagg correctly forecasts a brief improvement in weather conditions over the English Channel which will permit the following day's Normandy landings to take place (having been deferred from today due to unfavourable weather).
At 10:15 p.m. local time, the BBC transmits the second line of the Paul Verlaine poem to the French Resistance, indicating that the invasion of Europe is about to begin.
More than 1,000 British bombers drop 5,000 tons of bombs on German gun batteries on the Normandy coast in preparation for D-Day.
US and British paratrooper divisions jump over Normandy, in preparation for D-Day, including 82nd and 101st Airborne divisions of the United States.
D-Day naval deceptions are launched.
June 6 – WWII – D-Day: 155,000 Allied troops shipped from England land on the beaches of Normandy in northern France, beginning Operation Overlord and the Invasion of Normandy. The Allied soldiers quickly break through the Atlantic Wall and push inland, in the largest amphibious military operation in history. This operation helps liberate France from Germany, and also weakens the Nazi hold on Europe.
June 7 – WWII:
The steamer Danae (Greek: Δανάη), carrying 600 Cretans including 350 Greek Jews on the first leg of the journey to Auschwitz, is sunk, with no known survivors, off Santorini.
Joel Brand is intercepted by British agents in Aleppo.
Bayeux is liberated by British troops.
June 9 – WWII: Soviet leader Joseph Stalin launches the Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive against Finland, with the intent of defeating Finland before pushing for Berlin.
June 10 – WWII: 642 men, women and children are killed in the Oradour-sur-Glane Massacre in France.
June 13 – WWII: Germany launches the first V-1 flying bomb attack on London.
June 15 – WWII: Battle of Saipan: United States forces land on Saipan.
June 16 – At age 14, George Stinney becomes the youngest person ever executed in the United States.
June 17 – Iceland declares full independence from Denmark.
June 19 – A severe storm badly damages the Mulberry harbours on the Normandy coast.
June 20 – WWII: A V-2 rocket becomes the first man-made object to cross the Kármán line and reach the edge of space.
June 22 – WWII:
Operation Bagration: A general attack by Soviet forces clears the German forces from Belarus, resulting in the destruction of German Army Group Centre, possibly the greatest defeat of the Wehrmacht during WWII.
Burma Campaign: The Battle of Kohima ends in a British victory.
June 24 – David Ben-Gurion presents the One Million Plan to the Jewish Agency for Israel, proposing a million-strong Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries as well as from Europe to Mandatory Palestine.
June 25 – WWII
The Battle of Tali-Ihantala (the largest battle ever in the Nordic countries) begins between Finnish and Soviet troops. Finland is able to resist the attack and thus manages to stay as an independent nation.
Bombardment of Cherbourg by ships of the United States Navy and British Royal Navy in support of U.S. ground troops.
June 26 – WWII: American troops enter Cherbourg.
June 29 – WWII: 5,400 drown when USS Sturgeon torpedoes Toyama Maru.
June 30 – WWII: 3,219 drown when USS Tang torpedoes Nikkin Maru.
July 1 – The United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference begins at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States.
July 3 – WWII:
Soviet troops liberate Minsk.
Battle of Imphal: Japanese forces call off their advance, ending the battle with a British victory.
Hartford circus fire: More than 100 children die in one of the worst fire disasters in the history of the United States.
WWII: At Camp Hood, Texas, future baseball star and 1st Lt. Jackie Robinson is arrested and later court-martialed for refusing to move to the back of a segregated U.S. Army bus. He is eventually acquitted.
July 9 – WWII: British and Canadian forces capture Caen.
July 10 – WWII: Soviet troops begin operations to liberate the Baltic countries.
July 13 – WWII: Vilnius is freed by USSR.
July 16 – WWII: The first contingent of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force arrives in Italy.
July 17 – WWII:
The largest convoy of the war embarks from Halifax, Nova Scotia, under Royal Canadian Navy protection.
The SS E. A. Bryan, loaded with ammunition, explodes at the Port Chicago naval base; 320 are killed.
July 18 – WWII:
American forces push back the Germans in Saint-Lô, capturing the city.
British forces launch Operation Goodwood, an armoured offensive aimed at driving the Germans from the high ground to the south of Caen. The offensive ends 2 days later with minimal gains.
Hideki Tōjō resigns as Prime Minister of Japan due to numerous setbacks in the war effort and is succeeded (on July 22) by Kuniaki Koiso.
July 20 – WWII: Adolf Hitler survives an assassination attempt led by Claus von Stauffenberg.
July 21 – WWII:
Battle of Guam: American troops land on Guam (the battle ends August 10).
The Soviet-sponsored Polish Committee of National Liberation is created in opposition to the Polish government-in-exile.
The Bretton Woods Conference ends with agreements signed to set up the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and International Monetary Fund.
The new Polish Committee of National Liberation publishes the PKWN Manifesto in Chełm, calling for a continuation of fighting against Nazi Germany, radical reforms including nationalisation of industry, and a "decent border in the West" (the Oder–Neisse line).
United States v. Masaaki Kuwabara, the only Japanese American draft avoidance case to be dismissed on a due process violation of the U.S. Constitution.
WWII – Operation Spring: One of the bloodiest days for Canadian forces during the war results in 1,550 casualties, including 450 killed, during the Normandy Campaign.
WWII – Beginning of the Battle of Tannenberg Line or the "Battle of the Blue Hills" in Northeastern Estonia, where the Red Army will result in a Pyrrhic victory by 10 August.
July 26 – WWII: A Messerschmitt Me 262 becomes the first jet fighter aircraft to have an operational victory.
July 31 – WWII: 2,495 drown when USS Parche torpedoes Yoshino Maru.
August 1 – WWII: The Warsaw Uprising begins.
August 2 – WWII:
Turkey ends diplomatic and economic relations with Germany.
The First Assembly of ASNOM (the Anti-Fascist Assembly for the People's Liberation of Macedonia) is held in the Prohor Pčinjski monastery.
August 3 – The Education Act in the United Kingdom, promoted by Rab Butler, creates a Tripartite system of education in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
August 4 – The Holocaust: A tip from a Dutch informer leads the Gestapo to a sealed-off area in an Amsterdam warehouse, where they find Jewish diarist Anne Frank, her family, and others in hiding. All would die in the Holocaust except for Otto Frank, Anne's father.
August 5 – WWII:
The Warsaw Uprising:
The Wola massacre begins. Between now and August 12, 40,000 to 50,000 Polish civilians will be indiscriminately massacred by occupying SS troops.
The Holocaust: Polish insurgents liberate a German labor camp in Warsaw, freeing 348 Jewish prisoners.
Cowra breakout: Over 500 Japanese prisoners of war attempt a mass breakout from the Cowra camp in Australia. In the ensuing manhunt, 231 Japanese escapees and four Australian soldiers are killed.
August 7 – IBM dedicates the first program-controlled calculator, the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (known best as the Harvard Mark I).
August 9 – The United States Forest Service and the Wartime Advertising Council release posters featuring Smokey Bear for the first time.
August 12 – WWII:
The Allies capture Florence, Italy.
Operation Pluto: The world's first undersea oil pipeline is laid between England and France.
August 15 – WWII: Operation Dragoon lands Allies in southern France. The U.S. 45th Infantry Division participates in its fourth assault landing at Sainte-Maxime, spearheading the drive for the Belfort Gap.
August 18 – WWII: Submarine USS Rasher sinks Teia Maru, Eishin Maru, Teiyu Maru, and carrier Taiyō from Japanese convoy HI71 in one of the most effective American "wolfpack" attacks of the war.
August 19 – WWII:
More than 4,400 Japanese seamen drown when USS Spadefish torpedoes Tamatsu Maru.
An insurrection starts in Paris.
August 20 – WWII:
American forces successfully defeat Nazi forces at Chambois, closing the Falaise Pocket.
168 captured Allied airmen, including Phil Lamason, accused of being "terror fliers" by the Gestapo, arrive at Buchenwald concentration camp where they form the KLB Club.
Dumbarton Oaks Conference (Washington Conversations on International Peace and Security Organization) opens in Washington, D.C.: U.S., British, Chinese, French and Soviet representatives meet to plan the foundation of the United Nations.
WWII: Operation Tractable concludes when Canadian troops relieve the Polish and link with the Americans, capturing remaining German forces in the Falaise Pocket and securing the strategically important French town of Falaise in the final offensive of the Battle of Normandy.
August 22 – WWII: Tsushima Maru, an unmarked Japanese passenger/cargo ship, is sunk by torpedoes launched by the submarine USS Bowfin off Akuseki-jima, killing 1,484 civilians including 767 schoolchildren.
August 23 – WWII: In King Michael's Coup, Ion Antonescu, prime minister of Romania, is arrested and a new government established. Romania leaves the war against the Soviet Union, joining the Allies.
August 24 – WWII:
Liberation of Paris: The Allies enter Paris, successfully completing Operation Overlord.
Japanese vessels attack and sink the submarine USS Harder off Luzon.
August 25 – WWII:
German surrender of Paris: General Dietrich von Choltitz surrenders Paris to the Allies in defiance of Hitler's orders to destroy it.
Maillé massacre: Massacre of 129 civilians (70% women and children) by the Gestapo at Maillé, Indre-et-Loire.
Hungary decides to continue the war together with Germany.
The Red Ball Express convoy system begins operation supplying tons of materiel to Allied forces in France.
August 29 – WWII: The Slovak National Uprising against the Axis powers begins.
August 31 – The Mad Gasser of Mattoon apparently resumes their mysterious attacks in Mattoon, Illinois for two weeks.
September 1 – WWII: In Bulgaria, the Bagryanov government resigns.
The Holocaust: Diarist Anne Frank and her family are placed on the last transport train from Westerbork to Auschwitz concentration camp, arriving 3 days later.
¡Hola! magazine launched in Barcelona.
September 3 – WWII: The Allies liberate Brussels.
September 4 – WWII:
The British 11th Armoured Division liberates the city of Antwerp in Belgium.
Finland breaks off relations with Germany.
September 5 – WWII: The Soviet Union declares war on Bulgaria.
September 6 – WWII: Tartu Offensive in Estonia concludes with Soviet forces capturing Tartu.
September 7 – WWII: The Belgian government in exile returns to Brussels from London.
September 8 – WWII:
The first V-2 rocket attack on London takes place.
The French town of Menton is liberated from German forces.
September 9 – WWII: An insurrection breaks out in Sofia.
September 11 – WWII: Laksevåg floating dry dock at Bergen (Norway) is sunk by British X-class submarine X-24.
September 12 – WWII: Allied forces from Operation Overlord (in the north) and Operation Dragoon (in the south of France) link up near Dijon.
September 14 – The Great Atlantic hurricane makes landfall in the New York City area.
September 15 – WWII: The Battle of Peleliu begins in the Pacific.
September 17 – WWII: Operation Market Garden begins, Allied airborne landings in the Netherlands and Germany.
September 18 – WWII:
5,620 drown when HMS Tradewind torpedoes Jun'yō Maru.
After German forces declare the evacuation of Estonia the day before, the Estonian national government briefly resumes control of Tallinn before Soviet advance.
September 19 – WWII:
An armistice between Finland and the Soviet Union is signed, ending the Continuation War.
The Battle of Hürtgen Forest begins east of the Belgian–German border.
September 22 – WWII: The Red Army captures Tallinn, Estonia. Prime Minister in Duties of the President of Estonia Jüri Uluots and 80,000 Estonian civilians manage to escape to Sweden and Germany. The evacuees include almost the entire population of the Estonian Swedes. Soviet bombing raids on the evacuating ships sink several ships with thousands on board.
September 24 – WWII: The U.S. 45th Infantry Division takes the strongly defended city of Épinal before crossing the Moselle river and entering the western foothills of the Vosges.
September 26 – WWII:
Operation Market Garden ends in an Allied withdrawal.
On the middle front of the Gothic Line, Brazilian troops control the Serchio valley region after 10 days of fighting.
September – Start of Dutch famine ("Hongerwinter") in the occupied northern part of the Netherlands.
October 2 – WWII: Nazi troops end the Warsaw Uprising.
October 5 – WWII: Royal Canadian Air Force pilots shoot down the first German jet fighter over the Netherlands.
October 6 – WWII: The Battle of Debrecen starts on the Eastern Front (it lasts until October 29).
Holocaust: Members of the Sonderkommando (Jewish work units) in Auschwitz stage a revolt, killing 3 SS men before being massacred themselves.
Dumbarton Oaks Conference concludes.
October 8 – The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet radio show debuts in the United States.
October 9 – WWII: Fourth Moscow Conference: British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin begin a 9-day conference in Moscow to discuss the future of Europe.
The Holocaust/Porajmos: 800 Romani children are systematically murdered at the Auschwitz concentration camp.
WWII: Allied forces inflict significant losses upon Imperial Japanese Navy ships moored in Naha Harbor, destroying much of the city of Naha, Okinawa as well, in the 10-10 Air Raid.
WWII: The Allies land in Athens.
Canadian Arctic explorer Henry Larsen returns to Vancouver, becoming the first person successfully to navigate the Northwest Passage in both directions, in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police schooner St. Roch. His westbound voyage is the first completed in a single season and the first passage through the Prince of Wales Strait.
October 13 – WWII:
Riga, the capital of Latvia, is taken by the Red Army.
The first V-2 rocket attack on Antwerp takes place.
October 14 – WWII: German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel commits suicide rather than face execution for allegedly conspiring against Adolf Hitler.
October 18 – WWII: The Volkssturm Nazi militia is founded on Adolf Hitler's orders.
October 19 – Guatemalan Revolution begins, with the overthrow of Federico Ponce Vaides by a popular leftist movement.
October 20 – WWII:
Belgrade is liberated by Yugoslav Partisans and the Red Army.
American forces land on Red Beach in Palo, Leyte, as General Douglas MacArthur returns to the Philippines with Philippine Commonwealth president Sergio Osmeña, and Armed Forces of the Philippines Generals Basilio J. Valdes and Carlos P. Romulo.
United States and Filipino troops with Filipino guerrillas begin the Battle of Leyte.
American forces land on the beaches in Dulag, Leyte, the Philippines, accompanied by Filipino troops entering the town, and fiercely opposed by the Japanese occupation forces. The combined forces liberate Tacloban.
October 20 – A liquefied natural gas explosion destroys a square mile (2.6 km²) of Cleveland, Ohio.
October 21 – WWII: Aachen, the first German city to fall, is captured by American troops.
WWII: The Naval Battle of Leyte Gulf in the Philippines begins (lasts until October 26).
The Allies recognise Charles de Gaulle's cabinet as the provisional government of France.
WWII: The Red Army liberates Kirkenes, the first town in Norway to be liberated.
WWII: USS Tang (the United States Navy submarine credited with sinking more ships than any other American submarine) is sunk in the Formosa Strait by one of her own torpedoes. Medal of Honor-winning submarine ace Richard O'Kane becomes a prisoner of war.
Florence Foster Jenkins gives a recital in Carnegie Hall.
The Holocaust: Anne Frank and her sister Margot are deported from Auschwitz to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.
Appalachian Spring, a ballet by Martha Graham with music by Aaron Copland, debuts at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., with Graham in the lead role.
October 31 – Mass murderer Marcel Petiot is apprehended at a Paris Métro station.
November 1–December 7 – Delegates of 52 nations meet at the International Civil Aviation Conference in Chicago to plan for postwar international cooperation, framing the constitution of the International Civil Aviation Organization.
November 3 – WWII: Two supreme commanders of the Slovak National Uprising, Generals Ján Golian and Rudolf Viest, are captured, tortured and later executed by German forces.
United States presidential election: Franklin D. Roosevelt wins reelection over Republican challenger Thomas E. Dewey, becoming the only U.S. president elected to a fourth term.
Election day rail accident in Puerto Rico: A passenger train derails at Aguadilla due to excessive speed on a downgrade; 16 are killed, 50 injured.
November 10 – WWII: Ammunition ship USS Mount Hood (AE-11) disintegrates from accidental detonation of 3800 tons of cargo in the Seeadler Harbor fleet anchorage at Manus Island. 22 small boats are destroyed, 36 nearby ships damaged, 432 men are killed and 371 more are injured.
November 12 – WWII: Sinking of the German battleship Tirpitz by British Royal Air Force Lancaster bombers. Estimated casualties range from 950 to 1,204.
November 14 – WWII: 2,246 drown when USS Queenfish torpedoes Akitsu Maru.
November 16 – WWII: U.S. forces begin the month-long Operation Queen in the Rur valley.
The Popular Socialist Youth is founded in Cuba
WWII: 3,546 drown when USS Picuda torpedoes Mayasan Maru.
Conscription Crisis: Prime Minister of Canada William Mackenzie King agrees a one-time conscription levy in Canada for overseas service.
Laurence Olivier's film Henry V, based on Shakespeare's play, opens in London. It is the most acclaimed and the most successful movie version of a Shakespeare play made up to that time, and the first in Technicolor. Olivier both stars and directs.
November 24 – WWII: German forces evacuate from West Estonian Archipelago.
November 26 – American opera singer Florence Foster Jenkins dies in her sleep at the age of 76.
RAF Fauld explosion: Between 3,450 and 3,930 tons (3,500 and 4,000 tonnes) of ordnance explodes at an underground storage depot in Staffordshire, England, leaving about 75 dead and a crater 1,200 metres (0.75 miles) across and 120 metres (400 ft) deep. The blast is one of the largest non-nuclear explosions in history and the largest on UK soil.
Operation Tigerfish takes place. The Royal Air Force bombing of Freiburg im Breisgau kills 2,800.
November 29 – WWII: Submarine USS Archerfish (SS-311) sinks Japanese aircraft carrier Shinano. Shinano is the largest carrier built to this date, and will remain through the twentieth century the largest ship sunk by a submarine.
December 3 – WWII:
Fighting breaks out between Communists and royalists in newly liberated Greece, eventually leading to a full-scale Greek Civil War.
The British Home Guard is stood down.
December 7 – Convention on International Civil Aviation signed in Chicago to create the International Civil Aviation Organization.
December 10 – Italian conductor Arturo Toscanini leads a concert performance of the first half of Beethoven's Fidelio (minus its spoken dialogue) on NBC Radio, starring Rose Bampton. He chooses this opera for its political message – a statement against tyranny and dictatorship. Conducting it in German, Toscanini intends it as a tribute to the German people who are being oppressed by Hitler. The second half is broadcast a week later. The performance is later released on LP and CD, the first of 7 operas that Toscanini conducts on radio.
December 12–December 13 – WWII: British units attempt to take the hilltop town of Tossignano, but are repulsed.
December 13 – Battle of Mindoro: United States, Australian and Philippine Commonwealth troops land on Mindoro Island in the Philippines.
The Soviet government changes Turkish place names to Russian in the Crimea.
United States release of the film National Velvet, which brings a young Elizabeth Taylor to stardom.
December 15 – A USAAF utility aircraft carrying bandleader Major Glenn Miller disappears in heavy fog over the English Channel while flying to Paris.
December 16 – WWII:
Germany begins the Ardennes offensive, later known as Battle of the Bulge.
General George C. Marshall becomes the first U.S. Five-Star General.
WWII: Malmedy massacre: German SS troops under Joachim Peiper machine gun American prisoners of war captured during the Battle of the Bulge near Malmedy and elsewhere in Belgium.
WWII: Bombing of Ulm in World War II, 707 people are killed and 25,000 are left homeless.
December 19 – The daily newspaper Le Monde begins publication in Paris.
December 20 – The United States Women Airforce Service Pilots are disbanded.
WWII: Brigadier General Anthony C. McAuliffe, commander of the U.S. forces defending Bastogne, refuses to accept demands for surrender by sending a one-word reply, "Nuts!", to the German command.
The Vietnam People's Army is formed in French Indochina.
WWII: Troopship SS Léopoldville is sunk in the English Channel by German submarine U-486. Approximately 763 soldiers of the U.S. 66th Infantry Division bound for the Battle of the Bulge drown.
WWII: German tanks reach the furthest point of the Bulge at Celles.
WWII: Fifty German V-1 flying bombs, air-launched from Heinkel He 111 bombers flying over the North Sea, target Manchester in England, killing 42 and injuring more than 100 in the Oldham area.
WWII: Bande massacre. 34 men between the ages of 17 and 32 are executed by the Sicherheitsdienst near Bande, Belgium in retaliation for the killing of three German soldiers.
The first complete U.S. production of Tchaikovsky's ballet The Nutcracker is presented in San Francisco, choreographed by Willam Christensen. It will become an annual tradition there, and for the next ten years, the San Francisco Ballet will be the only company in the United States performing the complete work.
WWII: American troops repulse German forces at Bastogne.
The original stage version of The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams premieres in Chicago.
Edward Stettinius, Jr., becomes the last United States Secretary of State of the Roosevelt administration, filling the seat left by Cordell Hull.
King George II of Greece declares a regency, leaving his throne vacant.
"Stage Door Cartoon" is the first cartoon produced by Eddie Selzer.
December 31 – WWII:
Battle of Leyte: Tens of thousands of Imperial Japanese Army soldiers are killed in action, in a significant Filipino/Allied military victory.
The 1944 Summer Olympics, scheduled for London (together with the February Winter Olympics scheduled for Cortina d'Ampezzo in Italy), are suspended due to WWII.
In Sweden, Erik Wallenberg and Ruben Rausing invent a way to package milk in paper and start the company Tetra Pak.
The National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence is established in the United States.
Last known evidence of the existence of the Asiatic lion in the wild in Khuzestan Province, Persia.
BC Zalgiris, as known well for professional basketball club founded in Kaunas, Lithuania. (former part of Soviet Union)
Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir, 7th President of Sudan
Jimmy Hart, American wrestling manager
Bob Minor, American actor and stunt performer
January 2 – Prince Norodom Ranariddh, Cambodian politician
January 3 – Chris von Saltza, American swimmer
Bonnie Franklin, American actress and television director (d. 2013)
Rolf M. Zinkernagel, Swiss immunologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Ian Hornak, American painter, draughtsman and sculptor (d. 2002)
Jimmy Page, English guitarist (Led Zeppelin)
January 10 – Frank Sinatra, Jr., American singer-songwriter and actor (d. 2016)
Joe Frazier, American boxer (d. 2011)
Carlos Villagrán, Mexican actor and comedian
Jan Guillou, Swedish author
Françoise Hardy, French singer
Paul Keating, 24th Prime Minister of Australia
Alexander Van der Bellen, 12nd President of Austria
January 19 – Shelley Fabares, American actress and singer
January 23 – Rutger Hauer, Dutch actor
January 24 – Klaus Nomi, German singer (d. 1983)
Sally Beauman, English writer
Evan Chandler, screenwriter, dentist (d. 2009)
January 26 – Angela Davis, American feminist and political activist
Adenan Satem, Malaysian politician, Chief Minister of Sarawak (d. 2017)
Peter Akinola, Nigerian religious leader
Mairead Corrigan, Northern Irish activist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
Nick Mason, English rock drummer (Pink Floyd)
Susan Howard, American actress
John Tavener, English composer of religious music (d. 2013)
Susana Giménez, TV presenter Argentina
Patrick Lipton Robinson, Jamaican judge
Connie Booth, American writer and actress
Ivo Opstelten, Dutch politician
February 2 – Geoffrey Hughes, English actor (d. 2012)
February 3 – Trisha Noble, Australian singer and actress
Al Kooper, American rock musician (Blood, Sweat & Tears)
Thekla Carola Wied, German actress
February 8 – Roger Lloyd-Pack, English actor (d. 2014)
February 9 – Alice Walker, American writer
February 10 – Peter Allen, Australian-born Academy Award-winning composer and lyricist (d. 1992)
February 11 – Michael G. Oxley, American politician (d. 2016)
February 12 – Moe Bandy, American country music singer
Stockard Channing, American actress
Michael Ensign, American actor
Jerry Springer, English-born American politician and television personality
Carl Bernstein, American journalist
Sir Alan Parker, English film director, producer, actor and writer
February 15 – Dzhokhar Dudayev, Chechen leader, first President of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, an unrecognized breakaway state in the North Caucasus (d. 1996)
Richard Ford, American writer
António Mascarenhas Monteiro, President of Cape Verde (d. 2016)
Karl Jenkins, Welsh composer
Bernie Grant, British Labour Party MP (d. 2000)
February 20 – Willem van Hanegem, Dutch football player and coach
Jonathan Demme, American film director, producer and writer
Tom Okker, Dutch tennis player
February 23 – Johnny Winter, American rock musician (d. 2014)
February 25 – François Cevert, French racing driver (d. 1973)
February 27 – Ken Grimwood, American writer (d. 2003)
February 28 – Sepp Maier, German retired footballer
February 29 – Dennis Farina, American actor (d. 2013)
John Breaux, U.S. Senator from Louisiana
Roger Daltrey, English singer-songwriter and actor (The Who)
Uschi Glas, German actress
Leif Segerstam, Finnish conductor and composer
Harvey Postlethwaite, English engineer and race car designer (d. 1999)
Bobby Womack, American singer and songwriter (d. 2014)
March 5 – Peter Brandes, Danish artist
Dame Kiri Te Kanawa, New Zealand soprano
Mary Wilson, American singer (The Supremes)
March 7 – Townes van Zandt, American singer (d. 1997)
March 8 – Buzz Hargrove, Canadian labour leader
Graham Lyle, Grammy-winning Scottish singer-songwriter and guitarist, known for writing several international hits for Tina Turner
Don Maclean, English comedian and broadcaster
Pattie Boyd, English model and first wife of George Harrison and Eric Clapton
John Sebastian, American singer-songwriter (The Lovin' Spoonful)
Said Musa, Prime Minister of Belize
Sirhan Sirhan, Palestinian assassin of Robert F. Kennedy
March 21 – Hilary Minster, British actor (d. 1999)
March 24 – R. Lee Ermey, U.S. Marine and actor
March 26 – Diana Ross, American urban musician and was lead singer of The Supremes
March 27 – Khosrow Shakibai, Iranian actor (d. 2008)
Rick Barry, American basketball player
Ken Howard, American actor (d. 2016)
Nana Akufo-Addo, President of Ghana
Denny McLain, American baseball player
April 3 – Tony Orlando, American musician
Magda Aelvoet, Belgian politician
Craig T. Nelson, American actor
April 5 – Peter T. King, American politician
Judith McConnell, American actress
Anita Pallenberg, Italian model and actress
Dame Felicity Palmer, English soprano
Warner Fusselle, American sportscaster (d. 2012)
Gerhard Schröder, Chancellor of Germany
Odd Nerdrum, Norwegian painter
Jimmy Walker, American professional basketball player (d. 2007)
April 11 – John Milius, American film director, producer and screenwriter
April 13 – Jack Casady, American rock musician (Jefferson Airplane, Hot Tuna)
April 18 – Charlie Tuna, American disc jockey and game show announcer (d. 2016)
Bernie Worrell, American keyboardist, (d. 2016)
James Heckman, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate
April 22 – Steve Fossett, American aviator, sailor and millionaire adventurer (d. 2007)
April 24 – Tony Visconti, American record producer, musician and singer
April 25 – Len Goodman, British ballroom dancer and television personality
April 26 – Larry H. Miller, American sports owner (Utah Jazz; d. 2009)
Michael Fish, British TV weatherman
Cuba Gooding, Sr., American actor and singer
April 28 – Jean-Claude Van Cauwenberghe, Belgian politician
April 29 – Richard Kline, American actor and television director
April 30 – Jill Clayburgh, American actress (d. 2010)
Suresh Kalmadi, Indian politician
Costa Cordalis, German singer
May 4 – Russi Taylor, American voice actress
Roger Rees, Welsh actor (d. 2015)
John Rhys-Davies, Welsh actor
May 8 – Gary Glitter, English singer
Richie Furay, American musician (Poco, Buffalo Springfield)
Laurence Owen, American figure skater (d. 1961)
May 10 – Jim Abrahams, American film director
May 12 – Sara Kestelman, English actress
May 13 – Armistead Maupin, American author
May 14 – George Lucas, American film director and producer
Ulrich Beck, German sociologist (d. 2015)
Gunilla Hutton, Swedish-born American actress and singer
May 19 – Peter Mayhew, English actor
Joe Cocker, English rock singer (d. 2014)
Boudewijn de Groot, Dutch singer
Dietrich Mateschitz, Austrian businessman
May 21 – Mary Robinson, President of Ireland
John Newcombe, Australian tennis player
Avraham Oz, Israeli theater professor, translator, and political activist
David Mark Berger, American-born Israeli weightlifter, murdered at the Munich Olympics (d. 1972)
Patti LaBelle, American singer
May 25 – Frank Oz, English puppeteer and film director
May 27 – Chris Dodd, American politician
Rudy Giuliani, former Mayor of New York City
Gladys Knight, American singer
Rita MacNeil, Canadian folk singer (d. 2013)
Patricia, Lady Stephens (née Quinn), retired Northern Irish actress
May 29 – Helmut Berger, Austrian actor
May 30 – Meredith MacRae, American actress (d. 2000)
June 1 – Robert Powell, English actor
June 3 – Edith McGuire, American sprinter
June 4 – Michelle Phillips, American singer and actress (The Mamas & the Papas)
Colm Wilkinson, Irish actor and singer
Whitfield Diffie, American cryptographer
Phillip Allen Sharp, American scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Edgar Froese, German musician (d. 2015)
Tommie Smith, American athlete
Mark Belanger, American baseball player (d. 1998)
Don Grady, American actor and singer (d. 2012)
Marc Ouellet, Canadian cardinal
Boz Scaggs, American singer and guitarist
June 13 – Ban Ki-moon, South Korean politician and 8th Secretary-General of the United Nations
June 16 – Henri Richelet, French painter
June 17 – Bill Rafferty, American comedian and impressionist (d. 2012)
June 21 – Ray Davies, English rock-singer and songwriter, co-founder of The Kinks
June 24 – Jeff Beck, English rock musician
June 29 – Gary Busey, American actor
Terry Funk, American professional wrestler
Raymond Moody, American parapsychologist
July 3 – Michel Polnareff, French singer
July 8 – Jeffrey Tambor, American actor
July 13 – Ernő Rubik, Hungarian inventor
July 14 – Aad Mansveld, Dutch footballer
July 15 – Jan-Michael Vincent, American actor
July 16 – Angharad Rees, Welsh actress (d. 2012)
Mark Burgess, New Zealand cricket captain
Catherine Schell, Hungarian actress
Carlos Alberto Torres, Brazilian footballer (d. 2016)
July 18 – David Hemery, British Olympic athlete
John Atta Mills, 13th President of Ghana (d. 2012)
Paul Wellstone, U.S. Senator from Minnesota (d. 2002)
July 23 – Alex Buzo, of Sydney, Australian playwright and author (d. 2006)
Geraldine Chaplin, English-American actress
Jonathan Dimbleby, British journalist and author
Robert C. Merton, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate
August 1 – Yury Romanenko, Soviet cosmonaut
Jim Capaldi, British drummer, singer and songwriter (Traffic) (d. 2005)
Naná Vasconcelos, Brazilian percussionist and vocalist (d. 2016)
August 3 – Jonas Falk, Swedish actor (d. 2010)
Richard Belzer, American actor and comedian
William Frankfather, American actor (d. 1998)
Orhan Gencebay, Turkish musician, composer, singer and actor
August 7 – John Glover, American actor
August 8 – Brooke Bundy, American actress
August 9 – Sam Elliott, American actor
Ian McDiarmid, Scottish actor
Frederick W. Smith, American founder of FedEx
August 12 – Larry Troutman, American musician (d. 1999)
August 13 – Kevin Tighe, American actor
August 15 – Sylvie Vartan, French singer
Robert Hitchcock, Australian sculptor
Volker Lechtenbrink, German television actor and singer
August 19 – Bodil Malmsten, Swedish writer (d. 2016)
August 20 – Rajiv Gandhi, Prime Minister of India (d. 1991)
Kari S. Tikka, Finnish Professor of Finance (d. 2006)
Peter Weir, Australian film director
August 23 – Saira Banu, Indian actress
August 25 – Christine Chubbuck, American television reporter (d. 1974)
August 26 – Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester
August 30 – Tug McGraw, American baseball player (d. 2004)
August 31 – Jos LeDuc, Canadian professional wrestler (d. 1999)
September 1 – Leonard Slatkin, American conductor
September 2 – Gilles Marchal, French musician
Tim Donnelly, American actor
Ty Warner, American Businessman, Inventor: Beanie Babies
September 4 – Tony Atkinson, British economist (d. 2017)
September 6 – Christian Boltanski, French artist
Earl Manigault, American basketball player (d. 1998)
Bora Milutinović, Serbian football coach
Leonard Peltier, Native American activist and convicted murderer
Barry White, American singer (d. 2003)
Carol Barnes, British newsreader (d. 2008)
Jacqueline Bisset, English actress
Peter Cetera, lead singer and guitarist of American rock group Chicago
September 15 – Graham Taylor, English footballer and football manager (d. 2017)
September 17 – Reinhold Messner, Italian mountaineer
Veronica Carlson, English actress and model
Satan's Angel, American exotic dancer
September 19 – İsmet Özel, Turkish poet
September 21 – Hamilton Jordan, Jimmy Carter's first White House Chief of Staff (d. 2008)
September 22 – Frazer Hines, British actor
September 25 – Michael Douglas, American film actor and producer
September 26 – Anne Robinson, British television host
September 30 – Jimmy Johnstone, Scottish footballer (d. 2006)
October 2 – Vernor Vinge, American science fiction writer
October 4 – Tony La Russa, American baseball player and manager
October 5 – Arnhim Eustace, Vincentian politician and 3rd Prime Minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
October 6 – Mylon LeFevre, American singer and evangelist
John Entwistle, English musician (The Who) (d. 2002)
Nona Hendryx, American R&B singer (Labelle)
Peter Tosh, Jamaican singer and musician (d. 1987)
Şerif Gören, Turkish film director
David Trimble, Northern Irish Unionist political leader; recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize 1998
October 20 – Clive Hornby, English actor (d. 2008)
October 21 – Jean-Pierre Sauvage, French scientist; recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016
October 25 – Kati Kovács, Hungarian jazz, pop and rock musician
October 28 – Dennis Franz, American actor
October 30 – Ahmed Chalabi, Iraqi businessman and politician (d. 2015)
Bobby Heenan, American professional wrestling manager and commentator
Oscar Temaru, President of French Polynesia
Rafic Hariri, Prime Minister of Lebanon (d. 2005)
November 2 – Keith Emerson, British keyboardist (d. 2016)
November 4 – Linda Gary, American voice actress (d. 1995)
November 6 – Wild Man Fischer, Outsider musician
November 7 – Joe Niekro, American baseball player (d. 2006)
Askar Akayevich Akayev, 1st President of Kyrgyzstan
Silvestre Reyes, American politician
Daniel Ortega, President of Nicaragua
Kemal Sunal, Turkish comedian
Booker T. Jones, American musician, singer and songwriter
Al Michaels, American sportscaster
Gene Clark, American singer-songwriter (d. 1991)
Danny DeVito, American actor, film producer and director
Rem Koolhaas, Dutch architect
Lorne Michaels, Canadian television and film producer
Tom Seaver, American baseball player
November 18 – Wolfgang Joop, German artist, fashion designer, and art collector
November 20 – Donald DiFrancesco, American lawyer and politician, 51st Governor of New Jersey
Richard Durbin, American politician; United States Senator (D-IL)
Harold Ramis, American actor, director and comedy writer (d. 2014)
Candy Darling, American actress (d. 1974)
Ibrahim Gambari, Nigerian scholar and diplomat
November 25 – Ben Stein, American law professor, actor and author
November 25 – Michael Kijana Wamalwa, Kenyan politician, 8th Vice President of Kenya
November 30 – George Graham, Scottish football player and manager
December 1 – John Densmore, drummer, member of The Doors.
Cathy Lee Crosby, American actress (That's Incredible!)
Ibrahim Rugova, 1st President of Kosovo (d. 2006)
December 4 – Dennis Wilson, American singer, songwriter and drummer (d. 1983)
December 5 – Jeroen Krabbé, Dutch actor and film director
Ron Kenoly, American Christian leader
Jonathan King, British music producer
Daniel Chorzempa, American organist
Georges Coste, French Rugby player and coach
Tadashi Irie, Japanese yakuza boss
Ki Longfellow, American novelist
Lynda Day George, American actress
Brenda Lee, American singer
Kenneth Cranham, Scottish born actor
Cara Duff-MacCormick, Canadian stage actress
December 17 – Bernard Hill, British actor
December 19 – Tim Reid, American actor and comedian
Bill Atkinson, English footballer
Michael Tilson Thomas, American conductor
Zheng Xiaoyu, Chinese bureaucrat (d. 2007)
December 22 – Steve Carlton, American baseball player
Wesley Clark, U.S. general and NATO Supreme Allied Commander
Ingar Knudtsen, Norwegian writer
December 24 – Erhard Keller, German speed skater
December 25 – Jairzinho, Brazilian football player
Bill Ayers, American education theorist and former radical anti-war activist
Jane Lapotaire, British actress
Aleksey Mikhalyov, Russian translator
December 28 – Kary Mullis, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
December 30 – Joseph Hilbe, American statistician and author
December 31 – Jan Widströmer, Swedish artist
Sima Bina, Iranian vocalist
William Goad, British businessman and serial child rapist (d. 2012)
Ahmad Kamyabi Mask, Iranian scholar
Ramon Torrents, Spanish artist
Edwin Lutyens, British architect (b. 1869)
Charles Turner, Australian cricketer (b. 1862)
January 4 – Kaj Munk, Danish playwright, priest and martyr (b. 1898)
January 6 – Ida Tarbell, American journalist and muckraker (b. 1857)
January 7 – Lou Henry Hoover, First Lady of the United States (b. 1874)
January 10 – William Emerson Ritter, American biologist (b. 1856)
Italian Fascist leaders executed in the Verona Trial
Emilio de Bono, General, former member of the Grand Council of Fascism (b. 1866)
Gian Galeazzo Ciano, 2nd Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari, aristocrat and diplomat, former member of the Grand Council of Fascism (b. 1903)
Giovanni Marinelli, former member of the Grand Council of Fascism (b. 1879)
Carluccio Pareschi, former member of the Grand Council of Fascism (b. 1898)
Luciano Gottardi (b. 1899)
Charles King, American actor (b. 1889)
Edgard Potier, Belgian spy (suicide) (b. 1903)
January 20 – James McKeen Cattell, American psychologist (b. 1860)
January 23 – Edvard Munch, Norwegian painter (b. 1863)
January 29 – William Allen White, American journalist (b. 1868)
January 31 – Jean Giraudoux, French writer (b. 1882)
February 1 – Piet Mondrian, Dutch painter (b. 1872)
February 4 – Yvette Guilbert, French singer and actress (b. 1867)
February 7 – Robert E. Park, American Sociologist (b. 1864)
February 11 – Carl Meinhof, German linguist (b. 1857)
Kenneth Gandar-Dower, English sportsman, aviator, explorer and author (b. 1908)
Margaret Woodrow Wilson, American singer; Presidential daughter (b. 1886)
February 13 – Edgar Selwyn, American screenwriter (b. 1875)
February 16 – Henri Nathansen, Danish writer and stage director (b. 1868)
February 21 – Ferenc Szisz, Hungarian-born race car driver (b. 1873)
February 23 – Leo Baekeland, Belgian-born American chemist (b. 1863)
February 29 – Pehr Evind Svinhufvud, Finnish politician, Prime Minister of Finland and 3rd President of Finland (b. 1861)
March 3 – Paul-Émile Janson, former Prime Minister of Belgium (b. 1872)
March 4 – Louis Buchalter, Jewish-American mobster, head of Murder, Inc. (b. 1897)
March 5 – Max Jacob, French poet (b. 1876)
Hendrik Willem van Loon, Dutch-American historian, journalist and writer (b. 1882)
Irvin S. Cobb, American writer (b. 1876)
March 19 – Noël Édouard, vicomte de Curières de Castelnau, French general (b. 1851)
March 22 – Pierre Brossolette, journalist and French Resistance fighter (b. 1903)
March 23 – Myron Selznick, American film producer (b. 1898)
Aldo Finzi, Italian politician (executed) (b. 1891)
Orde Wingate, British soldier (b. 1903)
March 31 – Mineichi Koga, Japanese admiral (b. 1885)
April 9 – Yevgeniya Rudneva, Soviet WWII heroine (b. 1920)
April 17 – J. T. Hearne, English cricketer (b. 1867)
April 21 – Hans-Valentin Hube, German army general (b. 1890)
April 25 – George Herriman, American cartoonist (b. 1880)
April 28 – Frank Knox, American Secretary of the Navy during WWII (b. 1874)
Billy Bitzer, American cinematographer (b. 1874)
Bernardino Machado, 3rd and 8th President of Portugal (b. 1851)
April 30 – Paul Poiret, French couturier (b. 1879)
May 5 – Bertha Benz (b. 1849), German automotive pioneer, wife and business partner of automobile inventor Karl Benz
May 7 – William Ledyard Rodgers, American admiral and military and naval historian (b. 1860)
May 8 – Albert Leo Stevens, pioneering American balloonist (b. 1877)
Max Brand, American author (b. 1892)
Harold Lowe, British sailor, 5th officer of the RMS Titanic (b. 1882)
Arthur Quiller-Couch (aka "Q"), British writer (b. 1863)
May 16 – George Ade, American author (b. 1866)
Fraser Barron, New Zealand bomber pilot during WWII (b. 1921)
Vincent Rose, American musician and band leader (b. 1880)
May 23 – Thomas Curtis, American athlete (b. 1873)
Inigo Campioni, Italian admiral (executed) (b. 1878)
Matsuji Ijuin, Japanese admiral (b. 1893)
Harold Bell Wright, American writer (b. 1872)
May 25 – Clark Daniel Stearns, 9th Governor of American Samoa (b. 1870)
May 30 – Jessie Ralph, American actress (b. 1864)
June – Joseph Campbell, Northern Irish poet and lyricist (b. 1879)
June 6 – Ker-Xavier Roussel, French painter (b. 1867)
June 16 – Marc Bloch, French historian (b. 1886)
June 27 – Milan Hodža, Slovak politician, champion of regional integration in Europe (b. 1878)
July 1 – Carl Mayer, Austrian screenwriter (b. 1894)
Andrée Borrel, French World War II heroine (b. 1919)
Vera Leigh, English World War II heroine (b. 1903)
Chūichi Nagumo, Japanese admiral (b. 1887)
Sonya Olschanezky, German World War II heroine (b. 1923)
Diana Rowden, English World War II heroine (b. 1915)
July 7 – Georges Mandel, French politician and WWII hero (b. 1885)
George B. Seitz, American director (b. 1888)
Takeo Takagi, Japanese admiral (b. 1892)
July 12 – Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., American political and business leader (b. 1887)
July 14 – Asmahan, Syrian-born Egyptian singer (b.1918?)
July 15 – Joseph Sadi-Lecointe, French aviator (b. 1891)
July 18 – Rex Whistler, English artist (b. 1905)
July 20 – Mildred Harris, American actress (b. 1901)
Ludwig Beck, German general and Chief of the German General Staff (b. 1880)
Claus von Stauffenberg, German resistance leader (b. 1907)
Lesley J. McNair, American general (b. 1883)
Jakob von Uexküll, Baltic German biologist (b. 1864)
July 26 – Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (b. 1877)
July 27 – Perry McGillivray, American Olympic swmmer (b. 1893)
July 30 – Lee Powell, American actor (b. 1908)
July 31 – Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, French pilot and writer (b. 1900)
Jean Prévost, French writer and journalist, member of the Maquis (b. 1901)
Manuel L. Quezon, 2nd President of the Philippines (b. 1878)
August 2 – Kakuji Kakuta, Japanese admiral (b. 1890)
August 4 – Krzysztof Kamil Baczyński, Polish poet (b. 1921)
August 8 – Michael Wittmann, German tank commander (killed in action) (b. 1914)
August 10– Berthold Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg, Nazi opponent and lawyer (b. 1905)
Joseph P. Kennedy Jr., American fighter pilot, oldest son of Joseph P. Kennedy (b. 1915)
Suzanne Spaak, Belgian World War II heroine
August 18 – Ernst Thälmann, German Communist leader (executed) (b. 1886)
Günther von Kluge, German field marshal (suicide) (b. 1882)
Henry Wood, British conductor (b. 1869)
Abdülmecid II, last Caliph of the Ottoman Empire (b. 1868)
Nikolai Roslavets, Ukrainian Soviet composer (b. 1880)
Hans Leesment, Estonian general (b. 1873)
Adam von Trott zu Solz, German diplomat (b. 1909)
August 27 – Princess Mafalda of Savoy (b. 1902)
September 5 – Gustave Biéler, Swiss WWII hero (b. 1904)
September 6 – Jan Franciszek Czartoryski, Polish Roman Catholic priest, executed during the Warsaw Uprising (b. 1897)
September 9 – Robert Benoist, French race car driver and war hero (b. 1895)
Yolande Beekman, French WWII heroine (b. 1911)
Madeleine Damerment, French WWII heroine (b. 1917)
Noor Inayat Khan, Indian WWII heroine (b. 1914)
W. Heath Robinson, British cartoonist and illustrator (b. 1872)
John Kenneth Macalister, Canadian WWII hero (b. 1914)
Frank Pickersgill, Canadian WWII hero (b. 1915)
Roméo Sabourin, Canadian WWII hero (b. 1923)
September 16 – Gustav Bauer, 11st Chancellor of Germany (b. 1870)
September 23 – Matylda Palfyova, Czechoslovakian artistic gymnast (b. 1912, killed in action)
Walter Breisky, 4th Chancellor of Austria (b. 1871)
Eugeniusz Lokajski, Polish athlete, gymnast and photographer (b. 1909)
September 27 – Aristide Maillol, French sculptor and painter (b. 1861)
September 28 – Josef Bürckel, German Nazi gauleiter (suicide) (b. 1895)
October 1 – Rudolf Schmundt, German general (b. 1896)
October 2 or 3 – Benjamin Fondane, Romanian-French Symbolist poet, critic and existentialist philosopher (gassed in Auschwitz concentration camp) (b. 1898)
October 4 – Al Smith, American politician (b. 1873)
October 8 – Wendell Willkie, American politician (b. 1892)
October 12 – Ramón Castillo, 25th President of Argentina (b. 1873)
October 14 – Erwin Rommel, German field marshal (suicide) (b. 1891)
October 21 – Alois Kayser, German missionary (b. 1877)
October 22 – Richard Bennett, American actor (b. 1870)
October 21 – Hilma af Klint, Swedish abstract painter (b. 1862)
October 23 – Charles Glover Barkla, English physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1877)
October 24 – Shōji Nishimura, Japanese vice admiral (killed in action) (b. 1889)
HRH The Princess Beatrice, youngest and last surviving child of Queen Victoria (b. 1857)
Hiroyoshi Nishizawa, Japanese fighter ace (killed in action) (b. 1920)
William Temple, Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1881)
November 2 – Thomas Midgley, Jr., American chemist and inventor (b. 1889)
November 4 – John Dill, Field Marshal of the British Army (b. 1881)
November 5 – Alexis Carrel, French surgeon and biologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1873)
November 7 – Hannah Szenes, Hungarian World War II heroine (executed) (b. 1921)
November 10 – Wang Jingwei, Chinese statesman, President of the Nanjing-based and Japanese-supported collaborationist Government of the Republica of China (b. 1883)
November 12 – George F. Houston, American actor (b. 1896)
November 14 – Trafford Leigh-Mallory, British aviator and Royal Air Force Air Chief Marshal (plane crash) (b. 1892)
Joseph Caillaux, French politician and 75th Prime Minister of France (b. 1863)
Arthur Eddington, English astronomer, physicist and mathematician (b. 1882)
November 25 – Kenesaw Mountain Landis, 1st commissioner of Major League Baseball (b. 1866)
November 26 – Florence Foster Jenkins, American socialite and operatic soprano (b. 1868)
Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Italian poet, editor and art theorist, founder of the Futurist movement (b. 1876)
Josef Lhévinne, Russian pianist (b. 1874)
December 4 – Roger Bresnahan, American baseball player and MLB Hall of Famer (b. 1879)
December 9 – Laird Cregar, American actor (b. 1916)
Wassily Kandinsky, Russian-born artist (b. 1866)
Lupe Vélez, Mexican actress (suicide) (b. 1908)
December 15 – Glenn Miller, American band leader (accident) (b. 1904)
December 22 – Harry Langdon, American comedian (b. 1884)
December 27 – Sára Salkaházi, Hungarian religious sister (b. 1899)
December 30 – Romain Rolland, French writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1866)
December 31 – Vicente Lim, Filipino general of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (b. 1889)
Gerald Haxton, companion and secretary to novelist/playwright W. Somerset Maugham (b. 1892)
Physics – Isidor Isaac Rabi
Chemistry – Otto Hahn
Medicine – Joseph Erlanger, Herbert Spencer Gasser
Literature – Johannes V. Jensen
Peace – International Committee of the Red Cross