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19 (number)

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19  20 →
Ordinal  19th (nineteenth)
Factorization  prime
Cardinal  nineteen
Numeral system  nonadecimal
Divisors  1, 19
19 (number)

19 (nineteen) is the natural number following 18 and preceding 20. It is a prime number.

Contents

In English speech, the numbers 19 and 90 are often confused, as sounding very similar. When carefully enunciated, they differ in which syllable is stressed: 19 /nnˈtn/ vs 90 /ˈnnti/. However, in dates such as 1999, and when contrasting numbers in the teens and when counting, such as 17, 18, 19, the stress shifts to the first syllable: 19 /ˈnntn/. In a 24-hour clock, the nineteenth hour is in conventional language called seven or seven o'clock.

Mathematics

19 is the 8th prime number. The sequence continues 23, 29, 31, 37, ... .

19 is the seventh Mersenne prime exponent.

19 is the fifth happy number and the third happy prime.

19 is the aliquot sum of two odd discrete semiprimes, 65 and 77 and is the base of the 19-aliquot tree.

19 is the maximum number of fourth powers needed to sum up to any natural number. It is the fourth value of g(k).

19 is the lowest prime centered triangular number, a centered hexagonal number and a Heegner number.

The only non-trivial normal magic hexagon contains 19 hexagons (the other being 1).

19 is the first number with more than one digit that can be written from base 2 to base 19 using only the digits 0 to 9; the other number is 20.

Technology

19 is The TCP/IP port used for chargen.

Science

  • The atomic number of potassium.
  • Astronomy: Every 19 years, the solar year and the lunar year align in what's known as the metonic cycle.
  • Islam

  • The number of angels guarding Hell ("Hellfire") ("Saqar") according to the Qur'an: "Over it are nineteen" (74:30), after which the Qur'an describes this number as being "a trial for those who disbelieve" (74:31), a sign for people of the scripture to be "convinced" (74:31) and that believers "will increase in faith" (74:31) due to it...
  • Quran code: There have been claims that patterns of the number 19 are present an unusual number of times in the Qur'an.[1][2]
  • The Number of Verse and Sura together in the Qur'an which announces Jesus son of Maryam's (Mary's) birth (Qur'an 19:19).
  • Baha'i faith

    In the Bábí and Bahá'í faiths, a group of 19 is called a Váhid, a Unity (Arabic: واحد wāhid, "one"). The numerical value of this word in the Abjad numeral system is 19.

  • The Bahá'í calendar is structured such that a year contains 19 months of 19 days each (along with the intercalary period of Ayyám-i-Há), as well as a 19-year cycle and a 361-year (19x19) supercycle.
  • The Báb and his disciples formed a group of 19.
  • There were 19 Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Music

  • "19" is a 1985 song by Paul Hardcastle, including sampled soundbites taken from a documentary about the Vietnam War in which 19 is claimed to have been the average age of United States soldiers killed in the conflict (an assertion which is widely disputed). The song was parodied by British satirist Rory Bremner under the pseudonym 'The Commentators,' as N-n-nineteen, Not Out, the title referring to the batting average of David Gower, the England cricket captain, during his side's risible performance against the West Indies in 1984 when they lost 5-0.
  • With a similar name and anti-Vietnam War theme, "I Was Only Nineteen" by the Australian group Redgum reached number one on the Australian charts in 1983. In 2005 a hip hop version of the song was produced by The Herd.
  • 19 is the name of Adele's 2008 debut album, so named since she was 19 years old at the time.
  • "Hey Nineteen" is a song by American jazz rock band Steely Dan, written by members Walter Becker and Donald Fagen, and released on their 1980 album Gaucho.
  • Nineteen has been used as an alternative to twelve for a division of the octave into equal parts. This idea goes back to Salinas in the sixteenth century, and is interesting in part because it gives a system of meantone tuning, being close to 1/3 comma meantone. See 19 equal temperament.
  • Some organs use the 19th harmonic to approximate a minor third.
  • Literature

  • Stephen King's eight-book epic The Dark Tower saga employs the number 19 in books The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger, The Dark Tower V: Wolves of the Calla, The Dark Tower VI: Song of Susannah, The Dark Tower VII: The Dark Tower, and The Wind Through the Keyhole as a mysterious and important number. They refer to the "ka-tet of 19", "Directive Nineteen," many names add up to 19, 19 seems to permeate every aspect of Roland and his traveler's lives. In addition, the number ends up being a powerful key.
  • In Jodi Picoult's bestselling book Nineteen Minutes, the number 19 is referenced multiple times. It is most commonly referenced when referring to the main subject of the book, the school shooting rampage that took place over a span of 19 minutes.
  • The novel "S." by Doug Dorst uses 19 and its multiples throughout. S is the 19th letter of the alphabet.
  • Games

  • The game of Go is played on a grid of 19×19 lines (though variants can be played on grids of other sizes).
  • 19 is the command in Age of Empires for the laughing emote.
  • Though the maximum score for a cribbage hand is 29, there is no combination of cards that adds up to 19 points. Many cribbage players, therefore, jokingly refer to a zero-point hand as "19 points."
  • In Ecuadorian card game "40", when counting the amount of cards gathered in a hand, the limit is 19, after which the count starts at 6 and represents the points achieved during that hand.
  • Age 19

  • This is the minimum age that is legal to buy tobacco products in the states Alabama, Alaska, New Jersey, Utah and several counties in New York including Nassau, and Onondaga.
  • This is the minimum age at which one can drink and buy alcohol in Canada except for the provinces of Alberta, Manitoba, and Quebec where the drinking and purchase age of alcohol is 18.
  • This is the minimum age to marry in the state of Nebraska.
  • In sports

  • In golf the "19th hole" is the clubhouse bar. In miniature golf it is an extra hole on which the winner earns an instant prize.
  • As of the most recently completed 2012 season, Major League Soccer has 19 teams.
  • The jersey number 19 has been retired by several North American sports teams in honor of past playing greats or other key figures:
  • In Major League Baseball:
  • The Cleveland Indians, for Hall of Famer Bob Feller.
  • The Milwaukee Brewers, for Hall of Famer Robin Yount.
  • The San Diego Padres, for Hall of Famer Tony Gwynn.
  • In the NBA:
  • The New York Knicks, for Hall of Famer Willis Reed.
  • In the NFL:
  • The Baltimore Colts, for Hall of Famer Johnny Unitas, The team has honored this retirement in its current home of Indianapolis.
  • The Kansas City Chiefs, for Hall of Famer Joe Montana.
  • The San Diego Chargers, for Hall of Famer Lance Alworth.
  • In the NHL:
  • The Colorado Avalanche, for Joe Sakic, who entered the Hockey Hall of Fame in November 2012.
  • The Detroit Red Wings, for Hall of Famer Steve Yzerman. Some Red Wings fans collectively refer to themselves as "the 19" in his honor.[3]
  • The Minnesota North Stars, for Bill Masterton. The team has honored this retirement in its current home of Dallas. Masterton died from an on-ice injury in 1968, and to this day remains the only NHL player to have died as a direct result of an injury suffered during an NHL game.
  • The Montreal Canadiens, for Hall of Famer Larry Robinson.
  • The New York Islanders, for Hall of Famer Bryan Trottier.
  • The Vancouver Canucks, for Markus Näslund.
  • In the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series, 19 is the number of the car currently driven by Carl Edwards for Joe Gibbs Racing. It is a Toyota Camry.
  • In the NASCAR Xfinity Series, 19 is the number of the car currently driven by Daniel Suárez for Joe Gibbs Racing. It is a Toyota Camry. It was the car he drove to his Xfinity Series Championship in 2016, as he was the first foreign-born driver in the history of the top three divisions of NASCAR, to win a championship.
  • In the Formula One world championship, 19 is the car number of Felipe Massa for Williams Martini Racing.
  • Other fields

  • The Nineteen Propositions was a 1642 petition from parliament to King Charles I of England.
  • The nineteenth President of the United States was Rutherford B. Hayes.
  • The nineteenth state to enter the Union of the United States was Indiana
  • Part of the name of a breakfast cereal: Product 19
  • The Soviet submarine K-19 was the first Soviet nuclear ballistic submarine
  • I-19 is the designation for a US Interstate highway in Arizona
  • 19 years is very close to 235 lunations. See Metonic cycle
  • The number of the French department Corrèze
  • References

    19 (number) Wikipedia


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