1900s|Kaiser — William I
Chancellor — Otto von Bismarck
King of Bavaria — Ludwig II of Bavaria
King of Prussia — Kaiser William I
King of Saxony — Albert of Saxony
King of Württemberg — Charles I of Württemberg
Grand Duke of Baden — Frederick I
Grand Duke of Hesse — Louis IV
Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin — Frederick Francis II
Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz — Frederick William
Grand Duke of Oldenburg — Peter II
Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach — Charles Alexander
Schaumburg-Lippe — Adolf I, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt — George Albert, Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen — Charles Gonthier, Prince of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
Principality of Lippe — Woldemar, Prince of Lippe
Reuss Elder Line — Heinrich XXII, Prince Reuss of Greiz
Reuss Younger Line — Heinrich XIV, Prince Reuss Younger Line
Waldeck and Pyrmont — George Victor, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont
Duke of Anhalt — Frederick I, Duke of Anhalt
Duke of Brunswick — — Prince Albert of Prussia (regent, appointed in 1885)
Duke of Saxe-Altenburg — Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg
Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha — Ernst II, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Duke of Saxe-Meiningen — Georg II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen
Cameroon (Kamerun) — Maximilian Buchner (acting commissioner) to 1 April, then Eduard von Knorr (acting commissioner) to 4 July, then Julius Freiherr von Soden (governor) (1st term)
German East Africa (Deutsch-Ostafrika) from 27 May — Karl Peters (administrator)
German New Guinea (Deutsch-Neuguinea) — Gustav von Oertzen (commissioner, appointed in 1885)
German South-West Africa (Deutsch-Südwestafrika) — Gustav Nachtigal (commissioner) to May 1885, then Heinrich Ernst Göring (acting commissioner)
Togoland — Heinrich Randad (provisional consul) to 26 June, then Ernst Falkenthal (commissioner)
Wituland (Deutsch-Witu) from 8 April — Gustav Denhardt (resident)
17 February — German government grants an imperial charter to Carl Peters for establishment of a protectorate in East Africa.
26 February — The final act of the Berlin Conference regulates European colonization and trade in Africa.
26 March — Prussian deportations: the Prussian government orders the expulsion of all ethnic Poles and Jews holding Russian citizenship, later extended to include Polish Austrian citizens. More than 30,000 people are forced across the border.
3 April — Gottlieb Daimler is granted a German patent for his 1-cylinder water-cooled engine design.
8 April — The sultan of Witu, cedes 25 square miles of territory to German brothers Clemens and Gustav Denhardt, which becames the first German territory in Wituland.
27 May — The remainder of the Wituland becames the German Protectorate of Wituland (Deutsch-Witu).
Karl Benz produces the Benz Patent-Motorwagen, regarded as the first automobile (patented and publicly launched the following year).
Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach produce the Daimler Reitwagen, regarded as the first motorcycle.
1885 in Germany Wikipedia
Events in the year 1885 in Germany.