|Covid-19|President: Rutherford B. Hayes (R-Ohio)
Vice President: William A. Wheeler (R-New York)
Chief Justice: Morrison Waite (Ohio)
Speaker of the House of Representatives: Samuel J. Randall (D-Pennsylvania)
January 28 – The Yale News becomes the first daily college newspaper in the United States.
February 18 – The Lincoln County War begins in Lincoln County, New Mexico.
February 19 – The phonograph is patented by Thomas Edison.
February 23 – Bland–Allison Act, leading to first minting of the Morgan dollar.
February 28 – Mississippi State University is created by the Mississippi Legislature (under the name The Agricultural and Mechanical College of the State of Mississippi).
May 2 – The Washburn "A" Mill in Minneapolis, Minnesota explodes, killing 18.
March 26 – University of California, Hastings College of the Law is founded.
July 26 – In California, the poet and American West outlaw calling himself "Black Bart" makes his last clean getaway when he steals a safe box from a Wells Fargo stagecoach. The empty box is found later with a taunting poem inside.
August 9 – The Wallingford Tornado of 1878, the deadliest tornado in Connecticut history, destroys the town of Wallingford, killing 34 people and injuring 70 or more.
September 30 – The ship Priscilla arrives in Hawaii from Funchal, Madeira, marking the beginning of the Portuguese immigration to the Hawaiian Islands (1878–1913).
October 1 – Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) opens as Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College.
November 18 – Soprano Marie Selika Williams becomes the first African American artist to perform at the White House.
Yellow fever in Mississippi Valley kills over 13,000.
U.S. arbitration rejects Argentine claims to Paraguay's part of the Chaco region.
The Johns Hopkins University Press, America's oldest university press, is established
Albert Augustus Pope's Pope Manufacturing Company begins producing the Columbia high-wheel bicycle outside Boston, signalling the beginning of a bicycle craze in the U.S.
The Remington No. 2 typewriter, the first with a shift key enabling production of lower as well as upper case characters, is introduced.
Gilded Age (1869–c. 1896)
Depression of 1873–79 (1873–1879)
January 29 – Walter F. George, United States Senator from Georgia from 1922 till 1957. Died in 1957.
February 1 – Hattie Caraway, United States Senator from Arkansas from 1931 till 1945. Died in 1950.
February 28 – Hugh A. Butler, United States Senator from Nebraska from 1941 till 1954. Died in 1954.
May 5 – Edward Gay II, United States Senator from Louisiana from 1918 till 1921. (died 1952)
June 4 – Thomas D. Schall, United States Senator from Minnesota from 1925 till 1935. (died 1935)
July 29 – James M. Slattery, United States Senator from Illinois from 1939 till 1940. Died in 1948.
August 2 – Nathan L. Bachman, United States Senator from Tennessee from 1933 till 1937. Died in 1937.
August 4 – Ernest Lundeen, United States Senator from Minnesota from 1937 till 1940. (died 1940)
September 14 – Scott Loftin, United States Senator from Florida in 1936. Died in 1953.
February 11 – Charles Magill Conrad, U.S. Senator from Louisiana from 1842 to 1843 (born 1804)
March 6 – Asa Biggs, U.S. Senator from North Carolina from 1855 to 1858 (born 1811)
March 29 – Mark Hopkins, Jr., entrepreneur (born 1813)
May 25 – John Scott Harrison, member of the United States House of Representatives from Ohio, son of William Henry Harrison, father of Benjamin Harrison (born 1804)
June 27 – Sidney Breese, U.S. Senator from Illinois from 1843 to 1849 (born 1800)
October 5 – George Boyer Vashon, African-American attorney, educationalist, abolitionist, essayist and poet (born 1824)
November 16 – Sarah Harris Fayerweather, African-American whose 1832 admission to a Connecticut school resulted in the first integrated schoolhouse (born 1812)
1878 in the United States Wikipedia
Events from the year 1878 in the United States.