Neha Patil (Editor)

1858 in science

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1858 in science

The year 1858 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

Contents

Archaeology

  • In Luxor, Egypt, the Rhind papyrus is found (named for Alexander Henry Rhind, the discoverer); it is sometimes called the Ahmes papyrus for the scribe who wrote it around 1650 BC.
  • Astronomy

  • Donati's Comet, the first comet to be photographed, is discovered by Giovanni Battista Donati on 2 June and remains visible for several months afterwards.
  • Biology

  • William Herschel initiates fingerprinting as a means of identification, in Bengal.
  • Rudolf Virchow publishes Die Cellularpathologie in ihrer Begründung auf physiologische und pathologische Gewebelehre: 20 Vorlesungen, gehalten während der Monate Februar, März und April 1858 im Pathologischen Institut zu Berlin.
  • George Bentham's Handbook of the British flora is published. This will be in use (in editions edited by Joseph Dalton Hooker) for a century.
  • Evolution

  • Publication of Darwin's theory:
  • June 18 – Charles Darwin receives papers from Alfred Russel Wallace setting out the latter's theory of natural selection which he forwards to Charles Lyell.
  • July 1 – Darwin and Wallace's papers on their theories of evolution, On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection (submitted with the support of Lyell and Joseph Dalton Hooker) are read by John Joseph Bennett to a meeting of the Linnean Society of London. They are first published on August 20.
  • Exploration

  • February 13 – Richard Francis Burton and John Hanning Speke become the first Europeans to discover Lake Tanganyika.
  • May 14 – Dr David Livingstone's 6-year Second Zambesi Expedition, under the patronage of the Royal Geographical Society, arrives at the African coast with the prefabricated iron paddle steamer Ma Robert.
  • August 3 – John Hanning Speke discovers Lake Victoria, source of the River Nile.
  • Mathematics

  • The Möbius strip is discovered independently by German mathematicians August Ferdinand Möbius and Johann Benedict Listing.
  • Arthur Cayley publishes "A memoir on the theory of matrices", introducing the modern concept of the matrix in mathematics.
  • Medicine

  • August 2 – Medical Act 1858 passed "to Regulate the Qualifications of Practitioners in Medicine and Surgery" in the United Kingdom.
  • First publication of Gray's Anatomy.
  • Publication in London of Thomas B. Peacock's On Malformations, &c., of the Human Heart, with original cases which becomes a standard cardiology textbook.
  • French pediatrician Eugène Bouchut develops a new technique for non-surgical orotracheal intubation to bypass laryngeal obstruction resulting from a diphtheria-related pseudomembrane.
  • Psychiatry

  • First treatise on postpartum psychiatric disturbances, by Louis-Victor Marcé, MD.
  • Technology

  • January 31 – I. K. Brunel's SS Great Eastern, the largest ship built to date, is launched on the River Thames using Tangye hydraulic rams.
  • August – The first aerial photography is carried out by Nadar from a moored balloon in France using the collodion process.
  • Hoffmann kiln patented in Germany by Friedrich Hoffmann for continuous production brickmaking.
  • Awards

  • Copley Medal: Charles Lyell
  • Wollaston Medal for geology: James Hall
  • Births

  • January 28 – Eugène Dubois (died 1940), Dutch paleoanthropologist.
  • February 7 – Herman Frederik Carel ten Kate (died 1931), Dutch anthropologist.
  • March 18 – Rudolf Diesel (died 1913), German mechanical engineer.
  • April 23 – Max Planck (died 1947), German theoretical physicist.
  • May 19 – Thomas Allinson (died 1918), English physician and dietetic reformer.
  • August 11 – Christiaan Eijkman (died 1930), Dutch physiologist.
  • August 19 – Ellen Willmott (died 1934), English horticulturist.
  • August 27 – Giuseppe Peano (died 1932), Italian mathematician.
  • October 4 – Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin (died 1935), Banat-born physicist.
  • November 1 – Ludwig Struve (died 1920), Russian astronomer.
  • November 30 – Jagadish Chandra Bose (died 1937), Bengali physicist.
  • Laura Forster (died 1917), Australian physician.
  • Deaths

  • April 28 – Johannes Peter Müller (born 1801), German physiologist.
  • June 10 – Robert Brown (born 1773), Scottish botanist.
  • June 28 – Jane Marcet (born 1769), British popular science writer.
  • November 8 – George Peacock (born 1791), English mathematician.
  • December 16 – Richard Bright (born 1789), English physician.
  • date unknown - Amelia Griffiths (born 1768), British phycologist.
  • References

    1858 in science Wikipedia


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