|Covid-19|January 4 – Britain enters the Seven Years' War against Spain and Naples.
January 5 – Empress Elisabeth of Russia dies and is succeeded by her nephew Peter III. Peter, an admirer of Frederick the Great, immediately opens peace negotiations with the Prussians.
February 5 – The Great Holocaust of the Sikhs is carried out by the forces of Ahmed Shah Abdali in Punjab. In all, around 30,000 men, women and children perish in this campaign of slaughter.
May 15 – The Treaty of Saint Petersburg ends the war between Russia and Prussia.
May 22 – The Treaty of Hamburg takes Sweden out of the war against Prussia.
June 24 – Battle of Wilhelmsthal: The Anglo-Hanoverian army of Ferdinand of Brunswick defeats the French forces in Westphalia. The British commander Lord Granby distinguishes himself.
July 9 – Catherine II becomes empress of Russia upon the deposition of her husband Peter III. The incipient Russo-Prussian alliance falls apart, but Russia does not rejoin the war.
July 21 – Battle of Burkersdorf: In his last major battle, Frederick defeats Marshal Daun in Silesia.
August 13 – Seven Years' War: The Battle of Havana concludes after more than two months with the surrender of Havana by Spain to Great Britain.
September 15 – Empress Go-Sakuramachi succeeds her brother Emperor Momozono on the throne of Japan.
September 15 – Battle of Signal Hill: British troops defeat the French.
September 24–October 5 – Battle of Manila: Troops of the British East India Company take Manila from the Spanish, leading to the British occupation of Manila and its being made an open port.
October 29 – Battle of Freiberg: Prince Henry of Prussia, Frederick's brother, defeats the Austrian army of Marshal Serbelloni.
November 13 – Treaty of Fontainebleau, a secret agreement in which Louis XV of France cedes Louisiana (New France) to Charles III of Spain.
Louis XV orders the construction of the Petit Trianon, in the park of the Palace of Versailles, for his mistress Madame de Pompadour.
Neolin, a Delaware tribe prophet, begins to preach in America.
The North Carolina General Assembly incorporates Kingston, named for King George III of the United Kingdom, as the county seat of Dobbs County, North Carolina. The name is later shortened to Kinston in 1784.
The town of Charlottesville, Virginia, is founded.
Building of the Plymouth Synagogue in Plymouth, England, the oldest built by Ashkenazi Jews in the English-speaking world.
French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau publishes his famous books, The Social Contract and Émile, or On Education
James Stuart and Nicholas Revett's architectural treatise Antiquities of Athens.
April 29 – Jean-Baptiste Jourdan, French marshal (d. 1833)
May 19 – Johann Gottlieb Fichte, German philosopher (d. 1814)
June 5 – Bushrod Washington, American politician and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1829)
King George IV of the United Kingdom (d. 1830)
Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland, German physician (d. 1836)
August 13 – Théroigne de Méricourt, French revolutionary (d. 1817)
September 11 – Joanna Baillie, Scottish writer (d. 1851)
October 1 – Anton Bernolák, Slovak linguist (d. 1813)
October 12 – Jan Willem Janssens, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies (d. 1838)
October 21 – Herman Willem Daendels, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies (d. 1818)
October 23 – Samuel Morey, American inventor (d. 1843)
October 30 – André Chénier, French writer (d. 1794)
November 1 – Spencer Perceval, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1812)
undated – Birgithe Kühle, Norwegian journalist (d. 1832)
undated – Natalia Shelikova, Russian business person (d. 1810)
January 5 – Empress Elizabeth of Russia (b. 1709)
January 11 – Louis-François Roubiliac, French sculptor (b. 1695)
February 11 – Johann Tobias Krebs, German composer (b. 1690)
February 12 – Laurent Belissen, French composer (b. 1693)
February 20 – Tobias Mayer, German astronomer (b. 1723)
March 21 – Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille, French astronomer (b. 1713)
May 26 – Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten, German philosopher (b. 1714)
June 13 – Dorothea Erxleben, German Physician (b. 1715)
Prosper Jolyot de Crébillon, French writer (b. 1674)
Emperor Peter III of Russia (b. 1728)
June 19 – Johann Ernst Eberlin, German composer (b. 1702)
July 13 – James Bradley, English Astronomer Royal (b. 1693)
July 28 – George Dodington, 1st Baron Melcombe, English politician (b. 1691)
August 20 – Shah Waliullah, Islamic reformer (b. 1703)
August 21 – Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, English writer (b. 1689)
August 31 – Emperor Momozono of Japan (b. 1741)
September 17 – Francesco Geminiani, Italian composer (b. 1687)
October 6 – Francesco Manfredini, Italian composer (b. 1684)
Unknown date – William Moraley, English-American indentured servant and autobiographer, a primary source for life in the Province of Pennsylvania (b. 1698)
1762 (MDCCLXII) was a common year starting on Friday (dominical letter C) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday (dominical letter F) of the Julian calendar, the 1762nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 762nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 62nd year of the 18th century, and the 3rd year of the 1760s decade. As of the start of 1762, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.