Halley's comet returns; a team of three mathematicians, Alexis Clairaut, Jérome Lalande and Nicole Reine Lepaute, had—for the first time—predicted the date.
Caspar Friedrich Wolff's dissertation at the University of Halle Theoria Generationis supports the theory of epigenesis.
Kew Gardens established in England by Augusta of Saxe-Coburg, the mother of George III.
Giovanni Arduino proposes dividing the geological history of Earth into four periods: Primitive, Secondary, Tertiary and Volcanic, or Quaternary.
Posthumous publication of Émilie du Châtelet's French translation and commentary on Newton's Principia, Principes mathématiques de la philosophie naturelle.
Angélique du Coudray publishes Abrégé de l'art des accouchements ("The Art of Obstetrics").
English clockmaker John Harrison produces his "No. 1 sea watch" ("H4"), the first successful marine chronometer.
James Brindley is engaged by the Duke of Bridgewater to construct a canal to transport coal to Manchester from the duke's mines at Worsley, in North West England.
October 16 – Smeaton's Tower, John Smeaton's Eddystone Lighthouse off the coast of South West England, is first illuminated.
Copley Medal: John Smeaton
December 2 – James Edward Smith, English botanist (died 1828)
Date unknown – Maria Pettracini, Italian anatomist and physician (died 1791)
February 16 – Bartholomew Mosse, Irish surgeon (born 1712)
September 10 – Ferdinand Konščak, Croatian explorer (born 1703)
1759 in science Wikipedia
The year 1759 in science and technology involved several significant events.