The year 1543 in science and technology marks the beginning of the European Scientific revolution and included many events, some of which are listed here.

Nicolaus Copernicus publishes De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) in Nuremberg, offering entirely abstract mathematical arguments for the existence of the heliocentric universe.

Mathematics

Robert Recorde publishes The Grounde of Artes, teaching the Worke and Practise of Arithmeticke, both in whole numbers and fractions, one of the first printed elementary arithmetic textbooks in English and the first to cover algebra. It will go through around forty-five editions in the following century and a half.

Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia publishes a translation of Euclid's Elements into Italian, the first into any modern European language.

Medicine

Andreas Vesalius publishes De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body), illustrated by Jan van Calcar, in Basel, revolutionizing the science of human anatomy. He includes an account of a successful experimental tracheotomy for artificial respiration of a canine subject.

Technology

Ralf Hogge, working for Rev. William Levett, casts iron cannon at his blast furnace in the Sussex Weald of England.