|Covid-19|April 18 – Bona Sforza is crowned as Queen of Poland.
May 26 – A Transit of Venus occurs.
July – Dancing Plague of 1518, a case of dancing mania in Strasbourg in which many people die from constant dancing.
August – Construction of the Manchester Grammar School is completed in England.
October 3 – The Treaty of London temporarily ensures peace in Western Europe.
A plague of tropical fire ants devastates crops on Hispaniola.
Erasmus publishes his Colloquies.
Henricus Grammateus publishes Ayn neu Kunstlich Buech in Vienna, containing the earliest printed use of plus and minus signs for arithmetic.
The African slave trade begins.
Johann Hommel, German astronomer and mathematician (d. 1562)
Godfried van Mierlo, Dutch Dominican friar and bishop (d. 1587)
February 7 – Johann Funck, German theologian (d. 1566)
February 13 – Antonín Brus z Mohelnice, Moravian Roman Catholic archbishop (d. 1580)
February 20 – Georg, Count Palatine of Simmern-Sponheim, (d. 1569)
February 21 – John of Denmark, Danish prince (d. 1532)
February 28 – Francis III, Duke of Brittany, Duke of Brittany (d. 1536)
March 8 – Sidonie of Saxony, Duchess of Brunswick-Calenberg (d. 1575)
April 22 – Antoine de Bourbon, father of Henry IV of France (d. 1610)
July 3 – Li Shizhen, Chinese physician, pharmacologist and mineralogist (d. 1593)
August 8 – Conrad Lycosthenes, humanist and encyclopedist (d. 1561)
September 29 – Tintoretto, Italian painter (d. 1594)
October 26 – John Basset, Devonshire gentleman (d. 1541)
November 26 – Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora, Catholic cardinal (d. 1564)
December 13 – Clara of Saxe-Lauenburg, Princess of Saxe-Lauenburg and Duchess of Brunswick-Gifhorn by marriage (d. 1576)
December 17 – Ernest III, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen (d. 1567)
December 19 – Enrique de Borja y Aragón, Spanish noble of the House of Borgia (d. 1540)
James Halyburton, Scottish reformer (d. 1589)
Hubert Languet, French diplomat and reformer (d. 1581)
Connor MacLeod, Scottish Highlander and Immortal (d. 2002)
Edmund Plowden, English legal scholar (d. 1585)
possible – Catherine Howard, fifth queen consort of Henry VIII of England (born in between 1518 and 1524; d. 1542)
August 16 – Loyset Compère, French composer (b. c. 1445)
August 27 – Joan of Naples, queen consort of Naples (b. 1478)
Marmaduke Constable, English soldier (b. c. 1455)
Pierre de La Rue, Flemish composer (b. c. 1452)
November 24 – Vannozza dei Cattanei, mistress of Pope Alexander VI (b. 1442)
December 5 – Gian Giacomo Trivulzio, military commander (b. c. 1440)
December 27 – Mahmood Shah Bahmani II, sultan of the Bahmani Sultanate (b. c. 1470)
Moxammat Amin of Kazan, khan of Kazan (b. c. 1469)
Kabir, Indian mystic (b. 1440)
Aruj, Ottoman Corsair, brother of Hayreddin Barbarossa
Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din, sultan of Adal (assassinated) (b. c. 1473)
Year 1518 (MDXVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.