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11th century in science

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11th century in science

This is a summary of the 11th century in science and technology.

Contents

Al-Biruni is regarded as one of the greatest scholars of 11th century and was well versed in physics, mathematics, astronomy, and natural sciences, and also distinguished himself as a historian, chronologist and linguist.

95 of 146 books known to have been written by Bīrūnī, were devoted to astronomy, mathematics, and related subjects like mathematical geography.

Predicted and scheduled events

  • List of 11th-century lunar eclipses
  • List of solar eclipses in the 11th century
  • Optics

  • Book of Optics (كتاب المناظر) was written by Alhazen.
  • Geography

  • Al-Bakri wrote about Europe, North Africa, and the Arabian peninsula. Only two of his works have survived. His Mu'jam mā ista'jam contains a list of place names mostly within the Arabian peninsular with an introduction giving the geographical background.
  • The Mas'udi Canon (Persian قانون مسعودي) - an extensive encyclopedia on astronomy, geography, and engineering, named after Mas'ud, son of Mahmud of Ghazni, to whom he dedicated.
  • Leif Ericsson claims to have made landfall at three lands in North America, one of which he names Vinland meaning the land of wine.
  • Warfare

  • A Chinese manual on warfare includes the earliest known description of gunpowder.
  • Printing

  • The concept of movable kind for printing is pioneered in China, using fired clay, but it proves impractical.
  • Astronomy

  • The Book of Instruction in the Elements of the Art of Astrology (Kitab al-tafhim li-awa’il sina‘at al-tanjim).
  • The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries (Arabic الآثار الباقية عن القرون الخالية) - a comparative study of calendars of different cultures and civilizations, interlaced with mathematical, astronomical, and historical information.
  • The Mas'udi Canon (Persian قانون مسعودي) - an extensive encyclopedia on astronomy, geography, and engineering, named after Mas'ud, son of Mahmud of Ghazni, to whom he dedicated.
  • Understanding Astrology (Arabic التفهيم لصناعة التنجيم) - a question and answer style book about mathematics and astronomy, in Arabic and Persian.
  • Astronomers in China and Japan observe the explosion of the supernova which is still visible as the Crab Nebula.
  • Mathematics

  • The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries (Arabic الآثار الباقية عن القرون الخالية) - a comparative study of calendars of different cultures and civilizations, interlaced with mathematical, astronomical, and historical information.
  • Understanding Astrology (Arabic التفهيم لصناعة التنجيم) - a question and answer style book about mathematics and astronomy, in Arabic and Persian.
  • Engineering

  • The Mas'udi Canon (Persian قانون مسعودي) - an extensive encyclopedia on astronomy, geography, and engineering, named after Mas'ud, son of Mahmud of Ghazni, to whom he dedicated.
  • Medicines

  • Pharmacy - about drugs and medicines.
  • Surgery

  • The first illustrated manual of surgery is written by Abul Kasim in Cordoba.
  • Geology and minerals

  • Gems (Arabic الجماهر في معرفة الجواهر) about geology, minerals, and gems, dedicated to Mawdud son of Mas'ud.
  • Other

  • Su Sung, a Buddhist monk, created in China the principle of the escapement in his tower clock worked by a water wheel.
  • References

    11th century in science Wikipedia


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