May – The Norman leader Robert Guiscard conquers Taranto.
May 23 – Philip is crowned King of the Franks, at age 7.
October – The Byzantine army defeats the Normans, and enters Taranto.
December 6 – Béla I the Champion is crowned King of Hungary.
Upon the death of Emund the Old, he is succeeded by his son-in-law Stenkil, as King of Sweden.
The compilation of the New Book of Tang is completed, under a team of scholars led by Ouyang Xiu.
Chinese poet, calligrapher, and official Cai Xiang publishes his Cha Lu (Record of Tea).
Anselm enters the Benedictine Bec Abbey in Normandy, as a novice.
Spanish Jew Benjamin of Tudela reports that Constantinople has merchant communities from Babylon, Canaan, Egypt, Hungary, Persia, Russia, Sennar, and Spain, as well as 2,000 Jews (approximate date).
EuropeJanuary – Robert de Grandmesnil, his nephew Berengar, half-sister Judith (future wife of Roger I of Sicily), and eleven monks of the Abbey of Saint-Evroul, are banished from the Duchy of Normandy, and head to Southern Italy.
January 28 – Vratislaus II succeeds his brother Spytihněv II, as duke of Bohemia.
May – Normans Robert Guiscard and his brother Roger conquer Messina, in the Emirate of Sicily.
October 1 – Pope Alexander II succeeds Pope Nicholas II, as the 156th pope.
Speyer Cathedral is consecrated in Speyer, Germany.
Most of West Frisia (later part of the county of Holland) is conquered by imperial German armies, and given to the Bishop of Utrecht.
Sosols (a tribe in Estonia) destroy the Kievan Rus fortification of Yuryev in Tartu, and carry out a raid on Pskov.
AfricaYusuf ben Tashfin succeeds to the throne of Morocco, following the Almoravid conquest.
AfricaMarrakech is founded by the Almoravid dynasty.
The Almoravids overrun Morocco, and establish an intercontinental kingdom, stretching from Spain to Senegal.
The Banu Khurasan, vassal of the Hammadid dynasty, begin to rule the north of Ifriqiya.
EuropeAffligem Abbey, of the Order of St. Benedict, is founded in Affligem, Belgium.
EuropeGiovanni Orlandi launcches a successful Pisan naval assault upon Muslim-ruled Palermo, to support the ambitions of Roger of Hauteville.
May 8 – Battle of Graus: The allied Muslim and Christian troops, of the king of Castile and the emir of Zaragoza (maybe led by El Cid), defeat the Aragonese army. King Ramiro I of Aragon is killed; his son succeeds him.
Battle of Cerami (in Sicily): Roger leads a small group of invading Normans to defeat a much larger force of occupying Arab Muslims, aided by a vision of Saint George.
The River Thames in England is frozen for 14 weeks.
AsiaBattle of Damghan (1063) (part of the Seljukid Civil War): Alp Arslan defeats Qutalmish, to succeed the late Tughril, founder of the Seljuk Empire.
ArchitectureThe Pizhi Pagoda of Lingyan Temple, Shandong, China is completed, standing at a height of 54 m (177 ft) tall.
Construction of the present building of St Mark's Basilica is begun.
ReligionAnselm, later to become Archbishop of Canterbury, becomes prior at the Abbey of Bec.
The Bishopric of Olomouc is founded.
AmericasSunset Crater Volcano (present-day Arizona) first erupts.
AsiaThe Seljuk Turks storm Anatolia, taking Caesarea and Ani, marking the beginning of Turkish incursions into Anatolia.
The Kingdom of Georgia takes over Samshvilde, the capital of the neighboring Kingdom of Tashir-Dzoraget.
EuropeJune 9 – Coimbra is taken by King Ferdinand of Castile.
European warriors go to Spain, to participate in the siege of Barbastro. This expedition is sanctioned by the Pope, and is now regarded as an early form of Crusade.
Harold Godwinson is shipwrecked at Ponthieu, Normandy and taken captive by Count Guy.
Construction of the Duomo at Pisa in Tuscany begins.
December 28 – Westminster Abbey is consecrated in England.
The kingdoms of Galicia and Portugal become independent, under the rule of García.
Sima Guang, high chancellor of the Chinese Song dynasty, heads a team of scholars in initiating the compilation of an enormous written universal history of China, known as the Zizhi Tongjian.
Norman conquest of England:
January 5 – Edward the Confessor of York dies. The Witenagemot proclaims Harold Godwinson King of England.
January 6 – Harold II is crowned King of England, probably in the new Westminster Abbey.
January (approx.) – Harold marries Ealdgyth, daughter of Earl Ælfgar, and widow of Welsh ruler Gruffydd ap Llywelyn.
March 20 – Halley's Comet reaches perihelion. Its appearance is subsequently recorded in the Bayeux Tapestry.
September 18 – Norwegian king Harald Hardrada lands on the beaches of Scarborough and begins his invasion of England.
September 20 – Battle of Fulford: Norwegian king Harald Hardrada defeats the northern English earls Edwin and Morcar.
September 25 – Battle of Stamford Bridge: Word of the Battle of Fulford reaches King Harold Godwinson, who decides to ride north to meet the invaders. Harold defeats Harald Hardrada and his brother Tostig Godwinson.
September 27 – William the Conqueror and his army set sail from the mouth of the River Somme, beginning the Norman conquest of England.
September 28 – Duke William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey.
October 14 – Battle of Hastings, between King Harold II of England and Duke William of Normandy: Harold is killed by an arrow to the eye (some say he was killed by a band of Norman knights sent to assassinate him). William is victorious. This is considered the end of the Dark Ages or Early Middle Ages in England.
December 25 – Duke William of Normandy is crowned King William I of England in Westminster Abbey.
December 30 – Granada massacre: A Muslim mob storms the royal palace in Granada, crucifies Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela, and massacres most of the Jewish population of the city.
The Republic of Genoa, jealous of the recent successes of its former allies, launches a naval assault on the Republic of Pisa.
Magnus II Haraldsson is crowned King of Norway.
Upon the death of Stenkil, King of Sweden, two rivals named Eric battle for power in Sweden, both claiming the throne, until the next year.
Hedeby is destroyed by a Slavic, army and permanently abandoned.
Tain becomes the first town in Scotland to be chartered as a royal burgh.
On the death of her husband Constantine X, Eudocia Macrembolitissa becomes regent of the Byzantine Empire.
The Seljuk Turks take Caesarea in Cappadocia.
Construction begins on the Tower of London.
Olav III and Magnus II become joint Kings of Norway.
The two pretenders to the Swedish throne, Eric and Eric, are both killed during the struggle for power in Sweden. Halsten, son of king Stenkil, who died the year before, becomes the new king of the country.
The Trencavel family takes over in Carcassonne.
Wartburg Castle, according to legend, is built in Thuringia.
Winchester Castle is built in Hampshire, England.
March 3 – Battle on the Nemiga River: The three sons of Yaroslav (Iziaslav, Vsevolod, and Sviatoslav) defeat Vseslav of Polotsk.
Minsk and Orsha are first mentioned in the chronicles.
Shenzong of Song starts to rule.
Namgyeong is split from Yangju, Goryeo.
The poet Wang Anshi campaigns against corruption in China.
January 1 – Eudokia Makrembolitissa marries the general Romanus Diogenes, who becomes Byzantine Emperor.
March 18 – An earthquake affects the Near East, with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent). The shock has a magnitude greater than 7, and leaves about 20,000 people dead.
September – Zaynab an-Nafzawiyyah marries Abu Bakr ibn Umar, leader of the Almoravids, and becomes his queen and co-regent.
Emperor Go-Sanjō ascends to the throne of Japan.
William the Conqueror takes Exeter after a brief siege.
Battle of the Alta River: The Cumans defeat the rulers of Kievan Rus.
Kiev uprising of 1068: The city of Kiev rebels against Prince Iziaslav Yaroslavich, in the aftermath of the Kievan Rus defeat against the Cumans.
Harrying of the North: King William of England (William the Conqueror) reacts to rebellions made by his Anglo-Saxon subjects against him. He rides through the north of England with his army and burns houses, crops, cattle and land from York to Durham, which results in the deaths of over 100,000 people, mainly from starvation and winter cold.
William the Conqueror founds the Norman Selby Abbey.
Al-Mu'tamid ibn Abbad succeeds his father on the throne of the Taifa of Seville.
Emperor Shenzong of Song appoints Wang Anshi as his chief counsellor.
Wang Anshi, chancellor of the Chinese Song dynasty, implements the New Policies, which include financial reforms, raising the salaries of officials to reduce corruption, institution of the baojia system, etc.
Nam tiến, the southward expansion of the territory of Vietnam, begins.
Magnus II of Norway dies, and Olaf III becomes sole King of Norway.
The Seljuq Turks fail to capture Iconium, following a Byzantine counter-attack launched from Syria.
William the Conqueror
Edward the Confessor
Edgar the Ætheling
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