Leofric becomes Bishop of Exeter.
Hedeby is sacked by King Harald Hardråde of Norway, during the course of a conflict with Sweyn II of Denmark.
Swedish forces attack Finland.
Upon the death of Anund Jacob, he is succeeded by his brother Emund the Old as king of Sweden.
King Macbeth of Scotland makes a pilgrimage to Rome.
The brewery of Weltenburg Abbey is first mentioned, thus making it one of the oldest still operating breweries in the world.
Godwin, Earl of Wessex, is exiled from England by King Edward the Confessor, for refusing to take action against the townspeople of Dover. He returns the following year.
Hilarion of Kiev becomes the first native metropolitan of the Eastern Orthodox Church, in Kievan Rus.
May 19 – Henry I of France marries Anne of Kiev at the cathedral of Reims.
William of Normandy fights for his life and crown in Normandy.
Heregeld is abolished, by King Edward the Confessor of England.
Estonians recapture the fort in Tartu from the Russians.
AfricaBattle of Jabal Haydaran: The Zirid Dynasty is defeated by the Hilalian invaders.
EuropeGodwin, Earl of Wessex returns to England from exile.
AsiaThe Seljuk Turks conquer Isfahan, Persia.
Byodo-in officially changes its name from The Uji Villa, by order of Yorimichi Fujiwara, in Yamashiro Province, (current of Kyoto Prefecture) Japan.
June 18 – Battle of Civitate: 3,000 Norman horsemen of Humphrey of Hauteville, Count of Apulia and Calabria, rout the combined troops of Pope Leo IX and the Holy Roman Emperor.
Byodo-in, Uji, Kyoto, is built (Heian period; approximate date).
Jōchō sculpts Amida Buddha for the Byōdō-in Temple (Heian period; approximate date).
February – Battle of Mortemer: The Normans defeat a French army, as it is caught pillaging and plundering. King Henry I of France withdraws his main army from Normandy as a result.
April 30 – The earliest known European tornado strikes Rosdalla, Kilbeggan (Ireland).
July 4 – The SN 1054 supernova is recorded by the Chinese, Arab and possibly Native Americans, near the star Zeta Tauri. For 23 days it remains bright enough to be seen in daylight. Its remnants form the Crab Nebula (NGC 1952).
July 16 – Cardinal Humbertus, a representative of the newly deceased Pope Leo IX, and Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, decree each other excommunicated. Most historians look to this act as the final step in the initiation of the Great Schism between the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christian Churches (In 1965, those excommunications will be rescinded by Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras, when they meet in the Second Vatican Council. However, to this day each church claims to be the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church, and each denies the other's right to that name) (See East–West Schism).
July 27 – Siward, Earl of Northumbria invades Scotland, to support Malcolm Canmore against Macbeth, who usurped the Scottish throne from Malcolm's father, King Duncan. Macbeth is defeated at Dunsinane.
Lý Nhật Tôn, third king of the Lý dynasty, begins to rule in Vietnam, and changes the country's official name to Đại Việt.
The Almoravids retake the trading center of Awdaghost from Ghana
AfricaThe Almoravids conquer Aoudaghost (present-day Mauritania).
AsiaDecember 18 – The Seljuk Turks capture Baghdad; Al-Malik al-Rahim is taken prisoner.
EuropeJanuary 11 – Theodora becomes reigning empress of the Byzantine Empire.
October 24 – Ralph the Timid is defeated by the Welsh.
Ferdinand I of Castile begins his campaign against al-Andalus. The king conquers Seia from the Christian allies of the Muslim taifas. In a drive to consolidate his southern border, he repopulates the city of Zamora with some of his Cantabrian (montañeses) subjects.
ArtConstruction on the Liaodi Pagoda in Hebei is completed (the tallest pagoda in Chinese history, standing at a height of 84 m (275 ft) tall).
ReligionApril 13 – Pope Victor II succeeds Pope Leo IX, as the 153rd pope.
King Andrew I of Hungary establishes the Benedictine Tihany Abbey. Its foundation charter is the earliest written record extant in the Hungarian language.
Anselm leaves Italy.
Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, becomes King of Germany.
Ottokar, Count of Steyr, becomes Margrave of the Karantanian March, later known as Styria.
The Pagoda of Fugong Temple of Shanxi in northern China is built during the Liao Dynasty. Work begins on the Pizhi Pagoda of Lingyan Temple, Shandong, China, under the opposing Song Dynasty.
The Muslims expel 300 Christians from Jerusalem, and European Christians are forbidden to enter the Church of the Holy Sepulcher.
The Macedonian Dynasty ends in the Byzantine Empire.
AfricaThe Banu Hilal take Kairouan. The Zirid dynasty has to resettle to Mahdiya.
AsiaKing Anawrahta of Burma captures Thanton in northern Thailand, strengthening Theravada Buddhism in the country.
EuropeAugust 15 – Battle of Lumphanan: Macbeth, King of Scotland, is killed by the future Malcolm III; Macbeth is succeeded as King of Scotland by his stepson Lulach, who is crowned at Scone, probably on September 8.
August – Battle of Varaville: William the Conqueror defeats a Franco-Angevin army at the mouth of the Dives River, Normandy.
Ferdinand I of Castile takes Lamego and Viseu, from Christian lords allied to the Muslim taifas.
ReligionAugust 2 – Pope Stephen IX (sometimes referred to as Stephen X) succeeds Pope Victor II, as the 154th pope.
Reting Monastery is established by Dromtönpa north of Lhasa, as the seat of the Kadampa lineage.
Early – Pope Stephen IX pronounces on the authenticity of the relics of Mary Magdalene at Vézelay Abbey in France, making it a major centre of pilgrimage.
March 17 – King Lulach of Scotland is killed in battle against his cousin and rival Máel Coluim mac Donnchada, who later becomes King as Máel Coluim III.
September 20 – Agnes de Poitou and Andrew I of Hungary meet to negotiate about the border zone, in present-day Burgenland.
Antipope Benedict X is crowned pope, but later deposed.
Pope Nicholas II is elected pope in December, and installed the following year.
Boleslaus II takes office as duke of Poland.
Construction begins on the Cathedral of Parma, Italy.
Ealdred (archbishop of York) becomes the first English bishop to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.
The Almoravids conquer the Berghouata.
January 24 – Pope Nicholas II succeeds Pope Stephen IX as the 155th Pope, installed in Rome in opposition to Antipope Benedict X.
April 13 – Pope Nicholas II, with the agreement of the Lateran Council, issues the papal bull In nomine Domini, making the College of Cardinals the sole voters in the papal conclave for the election of popes.
August – Robert Guiscard signs the Treaty of Melfi, with Pope Nicholas II.
November 22 – Isaac I Komnenos resigns as Byzantine Emperor, appointing Constantine Ducas as his successor.
Muhammad bin Dawud, known as Alp Arslan, succeeds his father Chaghri Beg, as governor of Khorasan.
Peter Krešimir IV is crowned King of Croatia and Dalmatia.
Godwin, Earl of Wessex
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