|Covid-19|September – Pope Benedict IX is forced out of office, and Sylvester III is elected to succeed him.
King Anawrahta seizes the throne of Pagan in Myanmar.
The Chinese military treatise of the Wujing Zongyao is written and compiled by scholars Zeng Gongliang (曾公亮), Ding Du (丁度), and Yang Weide (楊惟德), during the Song Dynasty. It is the first book in history to include formulas for gunpowder, and its use for various bombs (thrown by sling or trebuchet catapult). It also describes the double-piston pump flamethrower and a thermoremanence compass, a few decades before Shen Kuo wrote of the first known magnetic mariners compass. Although emphasizing the importance of many weapons, it reserves high respect for the crossbow, and the ability of crossbowmen to fell charging units of nomadic cavalrymen.
Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, known as El Cid (d. 1099)
Gothelo I, Duke of Lorraine
Year 1044 (MXLIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
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