EuropeJune – Stephen I of Hungary forces the invading armies of the Holy Roman Empire, led by Conrad II, to retreat back to Germany.
July 29 – Battle of Stiklestad (Norway): Olaf II of Norway loses to his pagan vassals, and is killed in the battle. He is later canonized, and becomes the patron saint of Norway and Rex perpetuum Norvegiae ('the eternal king of Norway').
The city of Kaunas, Lithuania is founded.
The first mention is made of Tartu, Estonia, as Yaroslav the Wise of Novgorod and Kiev defeats the Chuds, and founds a fort named Yuryev (modern Tartu).
The earliest mention is made of Thalwil, Switzerland.
Henry I of France revolts against his father Robert.
AsiaThe Song Dynasty Chinese historian and scholar Ouyang Xiu obtains his jinshi degree at the age of only 22, by passing the highest level examinations in the country (his third attempt), leading him into a distinguished path as a scholar-official.
Battle of Azaz: Byzantine Emperor Romanus III invades Syria, and is defeated.
Masud seizes the throne of the Ghaznavid Empire, after the death of his father Mahmud.
EuropeJuly 20 – Henry I becomes sole King of France, on the death of his father Robert II.
The Ummayyad Caliphate of Córdoba collapses.
Bezprym seizes the throne of Poland from Mieszko II.
France suffers from a famine (until 1033).
Middle EastByzantine general George Maniaces captures Edessa.
EuropeOctober 21 – Benedict IX succeeds John XIX, as the 145th pope, while (probably) still in his teens.
The city of Kursk is mentioned for first time.
EuropeFebruary 2 – Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, becomes King of Burgundy.
Panic spreads throughout Europe that the end of the universe may be near, on the supposed 1,000th anniversary of the crucifixion of Christ, due to some unusually harsh spring weather. The Book of Revelation predicts the end of the earth after a 1,000 year period.
Byzantine EmpireApril 11 – Empress Zoe of Byzantium marries her chamberlain, and elevates him to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire, as Michael IV.
EuropeNovember 25 – King Malcolm II of Scotland dies in battle at Glamis. He is succeeded by Duncan, son of his second daughter, rather than Macbeth, son of his eldest.
Franche-Comté becomes subject to the Holy Roman Empire.
In al-Andalus, benefiting from the weakening of the Muslim central authority, the count of Portugal, Gonçalo Maia, conquers Montemor-o-Velho.
AsiaThe heir to the displaced Balhae kings revolts against the Liao dynasty, and flees to Goryeo when defeated.
AfricaThe Pisans take Annaba on the Maghribi coast, and occupy the city for one year.
EuropePisa launches a naval assault against the Saracen pirates strongholds in the Lipari Islands.
Harald I becomes king of England.
Harthacanute becomes king of Denmark.
Magnus I becomes king of Norway.
William II (the future William I of England) becomes duke of Normandy.
Construction on the cathedral of Saint Sabino begins in Bari.
Koper is awarded town rights.
The first Freimarkt festival is held in Bremen.
EuropeA Zirid attack in Sicily takes Palermo from the Normans, but fails to fully reconquer the island.
February 5 – Edward the Confessor's younger brother Alfred Aetheling is blinded and murdered, in an apparent attempt to seize the throne of England from Harold I.
ChinaThe Tangut script is devised by Yeli Renrong, for Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia.
JapanEmperor Go-Suzaku ascends the throne of Japan.
ReligionPope Benedict IX is briefly forced out of Rome, but returns with the help of Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor.
The Flower Sermon first appears in Buddhist literature.
EuropeConstruction of the Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev is ended.
Ferdinand I becomes the king of Castile and Leon.
Harold I seizes the crown of England from his half-brother Harthacanute.
George Maniaces begins a campaign against the Arabs in Sicily.
AsiaThe Song Dynasty Chinese rime dictionary of the Jiyun is published.
The Seljuq Dynasty starts.
EuropeThe name of Versailles, then a small village, appears for the first time in a medieval charter in France.
In the Muslim kingdom of Zaragoza, the ruling Banu Tujibi clan is deposed by Suleiman Al-Mustain I ibn Hud, who starts the Huddid Dynasty, which rules over the region for a century (possibly 1039).
AsiaThe Western Xia declare their independence from Liao China.
EuropeJune 4 – Henry III becomes King of Germany.
The Abbey of Bec is founded.
Bretislav I of Bohemia invades Poland.
Godwin, Earl of Wessex
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