|Place of origin UK|
Case type Rimmed
|Designer W.J. Jeffery & Co|
|Type Rifle, Hunting, Revolver*|
The .600 Nitro Express (15.7×76mmR) is a rifle cartridge in the Nitro Express series which was introduced in 1903 by W.J. Jeffery & Co. It is the second largest calibre in the Nitro Express line, exceeded only by Holland & Holland's .700 Nitro Express round.
All .600 Nitro Express cartridges carried a 900-grain (58 g) projectile. Early versions were loaded with cordite. While the .700 Nitro is of course larger, the .600 Nitro is the largest dangerous game caliber to have been used during the heyday of African ivory hunting. The .700 was a 1980s creation as a result of a well-to-do gentleman being denied a .600 NE calibered rifle from renowned maker Holland & Holland.
Though the .600 was larger than the .577, it was not nearly as popular among professional hunters of the day. It is impossible to say exactly how many .600s have been built, but most estimates are around 200; mainly doubles, but with a few falling block single shots too. In use, a professional hunter would carry this rifle only when engagement of a large, dangerous animal was imminent, chiefly for the purpose of stopping a charge after the client had fired, missed, and incited the target animal to charge the hunting party; the .600 Nitro Express was actually an "emergency" rather than a hunting rifle. It might also be used when the hunter was in the "thick brush", with a gun-bearer carrying it at other times. The rifles chambered for these rounds were most often side-by-side double rifles with boxlock actions made by the Jeffery Company of England. However, Jeffery did introduce their Model 1904 Farquharson-based falling-block, single-shot rifle in 1904 specifically for the .600 NE.