Thomas Pelham (c. 1705 – 21 December 1737) was a British politician.
The third son of Henry Pelham, he was apprenticed at a young age to John Lethieullier, a Turkey merchant in Constantinople, from which he got the name of "Turk" Pelham. On 5 February 1725, he married the merchant's stepdaughter, Annetta Bridges, by whom he had one son and one daughter:Thomas Pelham, 1st Earl of Chichester (1728–1805)
Henrietta Pelham, married George Nevill, 1st Earl of Abergavenny
Shortly thereafter, he succeeded his elder brother Henry to the family estates. While he declined his cousin, the Duke of Newcastle's proposal to nominate him for Lewes immediately upon his brother's death, he was brought in at the 1727 election by the Newcastle interest.
Newcastle was not satisfied with Thomas, although he was a government supporter, complaining of his drunkenness and "imprudent and extravagant" talk at Lewes when in his cups. He died in 1737 of the effects of alcoholism.