Théophile (Joseph Alexandre) Tilmant, (Tilmant aîné) was a French violinist and conductor born on 9 July 1799 in Valenciennes, France and died on 7 or 8 May 1878, Asnières.
Tilmant was a founding Sociétaire of the Société des Concerts in 1828, becoming a Chef and Vice-President on 5 May 1860, retiring from the Société on 17 November 1863.
He was a student of Kreutzer and played in the orchestra of the Opéra-Comique and the orchestra of the Opéra (viola from 1824 and violin from 1826-38). He also led the orchestra at the Théâtre-Italien and the Concerts du Gymnase. He was principal conductor of the Opéra-Comique from 1849-68. Tilmant received the Légion d'Honneur in 1861.
Tilmant conducted the premieres of Le caïd by Ambroise Thomas on 3 January 1849, Le toréador by Adolphe Adam on 18 May 1849, Galathée by Victor Massé on 14 April 1852, Le Sourd ou l’Auberge Pleine by Adam on 2 February 1853, Les noces de Jeannette by Massé on 4 February 1853, L'étoile du nord on 16 February 1854, and Mignon by Thomas on 17 November 1866.