Tawuran (or tubir) is a form of customary street fighting between gangs of school students in urban Indonesia. It is practised largely by males in their junior or senior year of high school, and Indonesian sociologist Wirumoto has suggested that it serves as a stress release mechanism, occurring as it often does following examinations. W. D. Mansur has suggested that it results not from personal factors such as religion or personality, but from group dynamics such as solidarity and prejudice.
Tawuran can result in serious injuries or even death; in 1999 there were 37 deaths, in 2011 82 deaths. A 2013 Al Jazeera report noted the increasing use of acid attacks in tawuran, resulting in severe injury and disfigurement. According to one report, between 2012 and 2017, 130 students were killed.