In combinatorial mathematics, a **superpermutation** on *n* symbols is a string that contains each permutation of *n* symbols as a substring. The smallest superpermutations for *n* < 5 are 1, 121, 123121321, and 123412314231243121342132413214321, having lengths of 1, 3, 9, and 33 (sequence A180632 in the OEIS). For all *n*, there is a superpermutation of length 1! + 2! + … + *n*!, which is minimal only for *n* < 6.