Soma Yoshitane (相馬義胤) (1548–1635) was a daimyō of the South Mutsu region, and the eldest son of Soma Moritane. He was the 16th generation family head of the Soma clan. Yoshitane fought the Date clan many times, until his defeat in the year 1589. After Date Masamune's submission to Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Yoshitane also declared allegiance to Hideyoshi, and his domain was reestablished in Mutsu province, at Nakamura. During the Sekigahara Campaign, Yoshitane did not respond fast enough to the call for arms by Tokugawa Ieyasu, and was thus deprived of his territory.
During the year 1603, Ieyasu's grandson Iemitsu was born, and on this auspicious occasion, Yoshitane's family was restored to its territory at Nakamura.
Yoshitane was succeeded by his son, Toshitane.