Sneha Girap

Margaret Hamilton (scientist)

Spouse(s)  James Cox Hamilton
Role  Scientist
Name  Margaret Hamilton
Education  Earlham College
Margaret Hamilton (scientist) httpsuploadwikimediaorgwikipediacommons22
Born  August 17, 1936 (age 79) (1936-08-17) Paoli, Indiana
Occupation  CEO of Hamilton Technologies, Inc. Computer scientist
Parents  Kenneth Heafield, Ruth Esther Heafield

Margaret Heafield Hamilton (born August 17, 1936) is a computer scientist, systems engineer, and business owner. She was Director of the Software Engineering Division of the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory, which developed on-board flight software for the Apollo space program. In one of the critical moments of the Apollo 11 mission, Hamilton's team's work prevented an abort of landing on the moon. In 1986, she became the founder and CEO of Hamilton Technologies, Inc. in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The company was developed around the Universal Systems Language based on her paradigm of Development Before the Fact (DBTF) for systems and software design.

Margaret Hamilton (scientist) Margaret Hamilton scientist Wikipedia the free

Hamilton has published over 130 papers, proceedings, and reports concerned with the 60 projects and six major programs in which she has been involved.

Margaret Hamilton (scientist) Margaret Hamilton the Engineer Who Took the Apollo to the

Early life

Margaret Hamilton (scientist) Margaret Hamilton scientist Wikipedia the free

Margaret Heafield was born to Kenneth Heafield and Ruth Esther Heafield (nee Partington). She graduated from Hancock High School in 1954, and earned a B.A. in mathematics with a minor in philosophy from Earlham College in 1958. After graduation, she briefly taught high school math and French while her husband finished earning his undergraduate degree. She moved to Boston, Massachusetts, with the intention of doing graduate study in abstract mathematics at Brandeis University. In 1960 she took an interim position at MIT to develop software for predicting weather on the LGP-30 and the PDP-1 computers (at Marvin Minsky's Project MAC) for professor Edward Norton Lorenz in the meteorology department. At that time, computer science and software engineering were not yet disciplines; instead, programmers learned on the job with hands-on experience.

Margaret Hamilton (scientist) who is margaret hamilton Digital Media Academy

From 1961 to 1963, she worked on the SAGE Project at Lincoln Labs, where she was one of the programmers who wrote software for the first AN/FSQ-7 computer (the XD-1), to search for "unfriendly" aircraft; she also wrote software for the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories.

SAGE Project

Margaret Hamilton (scientist) MIT on Twitter quotDYK MIT computer scientist Margaret

An extension of Project Whirlwind, started by M.I.T., to create a computer system that could predict weather systems and track their movements through simulators; SAGE was soon developed for military use in anti-aircraft air defense from potential Soviet attacks during the Cold War. For her part, Hamilton described her duties as such,

Margaret Hamilton (scientist) Margaret Hamilton Apollo Pics about space

What they used to do when you came into this organization as a beginner, was to assign you this program which nobody was able to ever figure out or get to run. When I was the beginner they gave it to me as well. And what had happened was it was tricky programming, and the person who wrote it took delight in the fact that all of his comments were in Greek and Latin. So I was assigned this program and I actually got it to work. It even printed out its answers in Latin and Greek. I was the first one to get it to work

Sponsored Links

It was her efforts on this project that made her a prime candidate for the position at NASA as the lead developer for Apollo flight software.


Hamilton then joined the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory at MIT, which at the time was working on the Apollo space mission. She eventually became the director and supervisor of software programming for Apollo and Skylab.

At NASA, Hamilton's team was responsible for helping pioneer the Apollo on-board guidance software required to navigate and land on the Moon, and its multiple variations used on numerous missions (including the subsequent Skylab). She worked to gain hands-on experience during a time when computer science and software engineering courses or disciplines were non-existent.

Her areas of expertise include systems design and software development, enterprise and process modelling, development paradigm, formal systems modeling languages, system-oriented objects for systems modelling and development, automated life-cycle environments, methods for maximizing software reliability and reuse, domain analysis, correctness by built-in language properties, open-architecture techniques for robust systems, full life-cycle automation, quality assurance, seamless integration, error detection and recovery techniques, man-machine interface systems, operating systems, end-to-end testing techniques, and life-cycle management techniques.

She was one of those who developed concepts of asynchronous software, priority scheduling, and Human-in-the-loop decision capability, which became the foundation for modern, ultra-reliable software design.

Apollo 11

Hamilton's work in the Apollo Guidance Computer software prevented an abort of the Apollo 11 Moon landing: Three minutes before the Lunar lander reached the Moon's surface, several computer alarms were triggered. The computer was overloaded with incoming data, because the rendezvous radar system (not necessary for landing) updated an involuntary counter in the computer, which stole cycles from the computer. Due to its robust architecture, the computer was able to keep running; the Apollo onboard flight software was developed using an asynchronous executive so that higher priority jobs (important for landing) could interrupt lower priority jobs. The fault was attributed to a faulty checklist.

Due to an error in the checklist manual, the rendezvous radar switch was placed in the wrong position. This caused it to send erroneous signals to the computer. The result was that the computer was being asked to perform all of its normal functions for landing while receiving an extra load of spurious data which used up 15% of its time. The computer (or rather the software in it) was smart enough to recognize that it was being asked to perform more tasks than it should be performing. It then sent out an alarm, which meant to the astronaut, I'm overloaded with more tasks than I should be doing at this time and I'm going to keep only the more important tasks; i.e., the ones needed for landing ... Actually, the computer was programmed to do more than recognize error conditions. A complete set of recovery programs was incorporated into the software. The software's action, in this case, was to eliminate lower priority tasks and re-establish the more important ones ... If the computer hadn't recognized this problem and taken recovery action, I doubt if Apollo 11 would have been the successful moon landing it was.


From 1976 through 1984, Hamilton was the CEO of a company she co-founded called Higher Order Software (HOS), that created a product called USE.IT, based on the HOS methodology.

In 1986, she became the founder and CEO of Hamilton Technologies, Inc. in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The company was developed around the Universal Systems Language (USL) and its associated automated environment, the 001 Tool Suite, based on her paradigm of Development Before The Fact (DBTF) for systems design and software development.


Hamilton is credited with coining the term "software engineering". In this field she was one of those who developed the concepts of asynchronous software, priority scheduling, end-to-end testing, and human-in-the-loop decision capability, such as priority displays which then became the foundation for ultra reliable software design.


  • 1986, Augusta Ada Lovelace Award, Association for Women in Computing.
  • 2003, NASA Exceptional Space Act Award for scientific and technical contributions. The award included $37,200, the largest amount awarded to any individual in NASA's history.
  • 2009, Outstanding Alumni Award, Earlham College.
  • Personal life

    She met her husband James Cox Hamilton while at Earlham College. They married in the late 1950s after Heafield earned her bachelor's degree. They had a daughter together named Lauren. The couple eventually divorced.


  • M. Hamilton (1994), "Inside Development Before the Fact," cover story, Special Editorial Supplement, 8ES-24ES. Electronic Design, Apr. 1994.
  • M. Hamilton (1994), "001: A Full Life Cycle Systems Engineering and Software Development Environment," cover story, Special Editorial Supplement, 22ES-30ES. Electronic Design, Jun. 1994.
  • M. Hamilton, Hackler, W. R.. (2004), Deeply Integrated Guidance Navigation Unit (DI-GNU) Common Software Architecture Principles (revised dec-29-04), DAAAE30-02-D-1020 and DAAB07-98-D-H502/0180, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ, 2003-2004.
  • M. Hamilton and W. R. Hackler (2007), "Universal Systems Language for Preventative Systems Engineering," Proc. 5th Ann. Conf. Systems Eng. Res. (CSER), Stevens Institute of Technology, Mar. 2007, paper #36.
  • M. Hamilton and W. R. Hackler (2007), "A Formal Universal Systems Semantics for SysML", 17th Annual International Symposium, INCOSE 2007, San Diego, CA, Jun. 2007.
  • M. Hamilton and W. R. Hackler (2008), "Universal Systems Language: Lessons Learned from Apollo", IEEE Computer, Dec. 2008.
  • References

    Margaret Hamilton (scientist) Wikipedia

    Sponsored Links
    Sponsored Links
    Sponsored Links