| United States|
| Linear Infighting Neural Override Engagement, 7 Deadly Moves of Combat philosophy|
LINE is a close quarters combat system, derived from various martial arts, used by the United States Marine Corps between 1989 and 1998, and then from 1998 through to 2007 for the US Army Special Forces. It was developed by retired combat-arms Marine Ron Donvito.
Officially, the name stands for Linear Infighting Neural Override Engagement; this is, however, a backronym coined during the project's inception.
LINE (combat system) Wikipedia
The system was designed to be executed within specific and stringent combat-oriented conditions:(a.) all techniques must not be vision dominant; techniques may be executed effectively in low-light conditions, or other impaired visibility conditions (i.e., smoke or gas)
(b.) extreme mental and physical fatigue
(c.) usable by the Marine / soldier while wearing full combat gear
(d.) proper execution of the techniques must cause death to the opponent
(e.) gender neutrality; must be usable by- and against- either gender
These parameters are viewed as the most likely conditions that a combat Marine or Soldier would face in close-range combat, since most close combat engagements were likely to occur at night or under reduced visibility, while the Marine was fatigued and wearing his combat load, and when facing asymmetrical odds, such as a numerically superior force. These requirements meant that many flamboyant techniques, exotic kicks, or movements requiring extraordinary feats of strength or agility were excluded from consideration under the LINE system. Techniques like classic judo "hip throws", for instance, were excluded because of the possibility of entanglement on a practitioner's war-belt.
The system's techniques were designed to be easily learned and retained through repetition. The requirement and demands that the system be drilled, repeated, and constantly revisited has led to some criticism since the primary users - military and special operations personnel- often have enormous demands upon their time, and as a consequence often lacked the ability to maintain high degrees of proficiency in the techniques.
LINE was adopted by the Marine Corps in 1989 at a Course Content Review Board (CRB) at Quantico, Virginia. All techniques were demonstrated for and deemed medically feasible by the Armed Forces Medical Examiner (given a single attack opponent) and a board of forensic pathologists from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) in 1991. LINE was replaced by the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP) by Marine Corps Order 1500.54, published in 2002, although it had been actually dropped in 1998, as a "revolutionary step in the development of martial arts skills for Marines and replaces all other close-combat related systems preceding its introduction." Military combatives instruction programs- and the contracts awarded for it- are undertaken through a system of competition, in which the systems are compared by review boards, and presented by individual subject matter experts. Review boards may, from time to time, choose one system over another, based on the changing needs of the Marine Corps or other military service. In the case of LINE Combatives, the system was repeatedly reviewed and approved for training by many units over more than two decades. LINE Combatives continues to be one of only two systems reviewed and consulted upon by specially tasked and appointed boards of military medical examiners.
The LINE Combatives system is presently sought by advanced students, officers, and military personnel throughout the special operations, high risk law enforcement, government agency, and private contractor industries.
Units trained include (but are not limited to):1st SWTG, United States Army
Special Forces, United States Army
1st SFG, United States Army
3rd SFG, United States Army
5th SFG, United States Army
7th SFG, United States Army
10th SFG, United States Army
19th SFG, United States Army
20th SFG, United States Army
SEAL Team II, United States Navy
82nd Airborne Division, United States Army
101st Airborne Division, United States Army
3rd Infantry Division, United States Army
4th Infantry Division, United States Army
172nd Infantry Brigade Stryker, United States Army
SOC South, United States Army
1st COSCOM, United States Army
96th Civil Affairs, United States Army
32nd MedCom, United States Army
44th MedCom, United States Army
112th Signal Bn, United States Army
27th Engineer Bn, United States Army
8th PsyOps, United States Army
9th PsyOps, United States Army
CGSC, United States Army
5th ASOS, United States Air Force
5th CBCG, United States Air Force
US Army Special Forces:
The LINE System was adopted in 1998 by U.S. Army Special Forces at the Special Forces Qualification Course (SFQC). Primary instruction took place during phase II and was remediated in phases III and V at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. LINE was replaced by the Modern Army Combatives Program (MACP) in October 2007.
US Air Forces:
In 2007 the Chief of Staff of the Air Force read an article in the Air Force Times about Airmen training in the LINE system and ordered a review of all hand-to-hand combat in the Air Force which resulted in the Air Force adopting a program based upon the Army Combatives Program.