John "James" Alcorn Rector (June 22, 1884 - March 10, 1949) was an American athlete. He was the first Arkansas athlete to compete in the Olympic Games.
James Rector was born in Hot Springs, Arkansas. He was the grandson of Arkansas Civil War governor Henry Massey Rector and Mississippi Reconstruction governor James Alcorn.
He won the silver medal in the 100 metres at the 1908 Summer Olympics, tying the Olympic record for the race (10.8 seconds at the time) during both the qualifying heats and the semifinals. He lost to Reggie Walker in the final, running the race in 10.9 seconds as Walker hit the 10.8 mark for his second time.
Rector was a prominent St. Louis, Missouri lawyer for more than thirty years before retiring in Hot Springs.