James Parker (1768– November 9, 1837) was an American politician.
Parker was born and educated in Boston. He studied medicine, became a doctor, and started a practice in Gardiner, Maine when Maine was part of Massachusetts.
In addition to practicing medicine, Parker was an inventor, and received a patent for an improved brick and tile making process.
Active in politics as a Democratic-Republican, he served in the Massachusetts State Senate from 1811 to 1812. Parker represented Massachusetts's 19th district in the United States House of Representatives from 1813 to 1815, and the 18th district from 1819 to 1821.
In 1824 Parker was chosen as a presidential elector pledged to support John Quincy Adams.
Parker died in Gardiner on November 9, 1837 and was buried at Gardiner's Oak Grove Cemetery.