James Carmichael (April 1894 – 19 January 1966) was a Scottish Labour politician, the son of George Carmichael, one of the founding members of the Independent Labour Party.
Carmichael was educated at the Scottish Labour College and worked as a constructional engineer, insurance agent and secretary. For fourteen years, he acted as organising secretary for the Scottish Independent Labour Party (ILP). He served on Glasgow Town Council 1939-46.
He was elected for Glasgow Bridgeton at a by-election in 1946, following the death of James Maxton, leader of the ILP. He was the ILP candidate, and he narrowly beat the Labour Party candidate to win the by-election. However this by-election was the ILP's "swan song"; he and the two other ILP MPs defected to the Labour Party at various times in 1947 and it ceased to be a serious electoral force after this.
Carmichael retired as an MP in 1961. The by-election to replace him was won by Labour, but it was one of the first elections where the Scottish National Party (SNP) won a significant vote, heralding further advances in the 1960s.
His son was Neil Carmichael, who was also a Glasgow Labour MP for several years, and was later ennobled as Lord Carmichael of Kelvingrove.