James Caldwell (1839–1925) was a Scottish politician. He served as an MP for two constituencies.
He was first elected for Glasgow St Rollox (UK Parliament constituency) in 1886 as a Liberal Unionist. During his term he went over to the Liberals, and in 1892 he stood for re-election not in his own constituency but in Glasgow Tradeston (UK Parliament constituency), where he was narrowly defeated.
He was then elected as Liberal MP for Mid Lanarkshire (UK Parliament constituency) at a by-election in 1894, where he served up to January 1910, when he stood down.