The surname Heiden has a number of different spellings including Haydn, Heide, Heid, Heidling, Heideling, Heidt, Heyde. The toponym exists as Heiden in a number of places in Germany and Switzerland.
As a nickname, it comes from the Middle High German heiden meaning "Heathen". The Middle High German heiden in turn comes from the Old High German heidano, a derivative of heida, "heath". Many have taken the name Haydn as a given name, after the composer Joseph Haydn, whose name comes from the use of heiden as a nickname to mean "heathen".
As an Ashkenazi Jewish name it may be a shortened form of placenames with the compound Heide, such as Heidenberg. It may also be another use of the nickname Heida, meaning "heathen".
As a Dutch name it is a shortened version of the surname Vanderheyden.