When Geovanni emerged from the youth set-up at Cruzeiro most Brazilian critics were intrigued by his talents and believed he could become a great player at the highest level. When Geovanni was 18 he enjoyed a successful loan spell at America, scoring one goal in 15 games at the right wing position. He instantly commanded a first team place at the Brazilian team. Once his loan spell had finished he immediately found his way into the first team of Cruzeiro and was a fan favourite at the Belo Horizonte club.
Geovanni was purchased by Barcelona for €18m in summer 2001, signing a four-year deal, despite reported interest from Arsenal and Juventus. Geovanni scored his first goal for Barcelona against Real Zaragoza. Geovanni made 21 La Liga appearances scoring 1 goal, mostly as a substitute. In his second season, he fell out with coach Carles Rexach and was not featured in Barcelona's starting 11 for the majority of the season and only played 5 league matches. Geovanni was then loaned out to Portuguese club Benfica the following season.
In 2003 Geovanni agreed on terms with Benfica and was signed on a free transfer, agreeing to a four-year deal, after an impressive spell with Benfica on loan from Barcelona. Geovanni scored his first goal for Benfica against Braga scoring a free kick. Geovanni was a mainstay in the Benfica starting line-up and was hugely involved in winning 3 trophies for Benfica, the Portuguese Cup, Portuguese League and Portuguese Supercup. In 2004 and 2005, he was named "Benfica Player of the Year". In 2005, he scored a memorable diving header in the UEFA Champions League against Manchester United.
Despite having a successful career at Benfica, Geovanni cancelled his contract after having family troubles and returned to Brazil.
In 2006 Geovanni rejoined Cruzeiro, signing a three-year deal. He was greeted at the airport by over 1,000 fans. Geovanni made his début scoring twice against Botafogo.
In July 2007, after being turned down by Portsmouth following a trial, he decided to join Manchester City on a one-year deal on 17 July 2007. On 11 August, Geovanni scored on his début for City in a 2–0 victory over West Ham United. The following week, he started and scored the only goal in City's 1–0 win over local rivals Manchester United to continue Manchester City's 100% start to the season. Geovanni's also scored against Wigan Athletic on 1 December 2007. On 3 July 2008, he was released by Manchester City.
On 5 July 2008 it was announced that Geovanni would be joining Hull City on a two-year contract. He scored Hull's first ever Premier League goal on his début against Fulham on 16 August and was voted Man of the Match.
On 27 September he scored his second Premier League goal for City with a 25-yard equalizer against Arsenal. Hull would go on to score again and record their first ever away win over Arsenal, defeating the London club 2–1. The following weekend, Geovanni scored a 30-yard free kick in a 1–0 victory against Tottenham Hotspur at White Hart Lane. His form for Hull earned high praise from Hull chairman Paul Duffen and Luis Felipe Scolari.
Geovanni went on to score goals against West Bromwich Albion, a penalty kick against Manchester United in a seven-goal thriller, and during a 2–2 home draw against former club Manchester City on 16 November.
He finished the season as Hull's top goalscorer as they narrowly avoided relegation. He signed a new two-year contract with Hull in September 2009, which would expire in June 2011.
Geovanni started well in the 2009–10 season for Hull City scoring four goals in just seven games, including strikes against Southend United in the League Cup, and league goals against Wolverhampton Wanderers, Liverpool, and Wigan Athletic. On 31 October 2009, Geovanni was sent off against Burnley after receiving two bookings. At the end of the season following Hull's relegation, he agreed to cancel his contract.
On 16 August 2010, Geovanni agreed to terms with the San Jose Earthquakes of Major League Soccer, becoming the club's first designated player. On 20 August 2010 it was announced that Geovanni will wear the number 77 shirt and make his debut against the Los Angeles Galaxy on 21 August 2010 in the California Clasico. On 5 September 2010, Geovanni made his first start for the Earthquakes and notched a goal and an assist in a 2–1 away win against the Houston Dynamo. Geovanni's option on his contract was not picked up by the club at the end of the 2010 season.
On 30 January 2011 he was announced as the new player of Vitória. On 27 February, he scored twice in a 2–0 win against Bahia de Feira. Two weeks later, he netted a goal and delivered an assist in a 4–2 win against Juazeiro.
Geovanni's first and only international appearance for Brazil's was in a 1–0 defeat to Mexico in the 2001 Copa América. Geovanni has also represented Brazil in the 2000 Olympic football tournament.
As of 14 May 2010