Galena was originally called Zoar, and under the latter name was platted in 1816. A post office called Galena has been in operation since 1834.
Galena is located at 40°12′55″N 82°52′54″W (40.215214, -82.881757).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.70 square miles (4.40 km2), of which 1.60 square miles (4.14 km2) is land and 0.10 square miles (0.26 km2) is water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 653 people, 214 households, and 172 families residing in the village. The population density was 408.1 inhabitants per square mile (157.6/km2). There were 237 housing units at an average density of 148.1 per square mile (57.2/km2). The racial makeup of the village was 90.8% White, 2.6% African American, 0.5% Native American, 3.4% Asian, 0.5% Pacific Islander, 1.2% from other races, and 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.3% of the population.
There were 214 households of which 45.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 69.2% were married couples living together, 7.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present, and 19.6% were non-families. 15.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.05 and the average family size was 3.38.
The median age in the village was 35.2 years. 30.9% of residents were under the age of 18; 5.6% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 29.7% were from 25 to 44; 24.6% were from 45 to 64; and 9.2% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the village was 49.5% male and 50.5% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 305 people, 122 households, and 89 families residing in the village. The population density was 509.8 people per square mile (196.3/km²). There were 132 housing units at an average density of 220.6 per square mile (84.9/km²). The racial makeup of the village was 97.70% White, 0.66% Native American, and 1.64% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.64% of the population.
There were 122 households out of which 32.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.5% were married couples living together, 5.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.0% were non-families. 25.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.97.
In the village, the population was spread out with 23.6% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 23.6% from 45 to 64, and 15.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 102.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.9 males.
The median income for a household in the village was $46,250, and the median income for a family was $49,500. Males had a median income of $38,750 versus $27,250 for females. The per capita income for the village was $20,163. About 4.8% of families and 9.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.1% of those under the age of 18 and none of those 65 or over.
Emergency medical services in Galena are provided by the Delaware County EMS.