Foolishness is the unawareness or lack of social norms which causes offence, annoyance, trouble or injury. Things such as impulsivity and or influences may effect a persons ability to make otherwise reasonable decisions. In this sense, it differs from stupidity, which is the lack of intelligence. An act of foolishness is called folly. Foolish talk is called stultiloquence.
Andreas Maercker in 1995 defined Foolishness as rigid, dogmatic and inflexible thinking which makes feelings of bitterness and probable annoyance. It is considered as foundation of illusions of grandiosity like omniscience, omnipotence and inviolability. It was studied that people who lack cooperative people and social skills happen to express this lack of empathy, short-term impulsive objectives and related pattern of behavior in workplace.
Book of Proverbs characterizes traits of foolishness. Foolishness and wisdom are contrasted in Paul's letter to the Corinthians. He condemns intellectual arrogance and advocates a humble attitude instead of foolishness, in which it is then possible to learn. Mahatma Gandhi sums up the concept of folly through his Seven Social Sins: Wealth without work; Pleasure without conscience; Knowledge without character; Business without morals; Science without humanity; Religion without sacrifice; Politics without principles.
Plato transvalued reason over foolishness, to him integrity of acceptance of a state itself was beginning of wisdom, he said "He is the wisest man who knows himself to be ill-equipped for the study of wisdom".