The ethnic conflict in Nagaland, in northeastern India, is an ongoing conflict fought between the ethnic Nagas and the governments of India and Myanmar. Nagaland inhabited by the Nagas is located at the tri-junction border of India on the West and South, China on the North and Myanmar on the East.
"Naga terrirtory" existed with "Full Sovereignty" before the advent of the British colonial expansionism in 1881. In 1947, the people of India and the Naga territory were liberated from the British rule. As early as January 10, 1929, Naga had informed the British government that they would not join the Union of India. After India regain sovereignty from British colonial rule, India included Nagaland which was previously known as Naga Hills as part of state of Assam. The land of Nagas was divided among two countries, India and Myanmar. "National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang)", which wants an independent "greater Nagaland" to include territory now in Myanmar, based on ethnicity; and the "Naga National Council (Adino)".
The question of "Naga Sovereignty" was put to plebiscite on May 16, 1951. In order to defend themselves, the Naga after much deliberation formed the armed wing of NNC, came to be known as NSG (Naga Safe Guards) under Kaito Sukhai.
Several rebel groups have operated in Nagaland since the mid-twentieth century, including the following:
- Naga National Council, a political organization active in the late 1940s and early 1950s, which became separatist under Angami Zapu Phizo.
- Naga National Council (Adino) – NNC (Adino): the oldest political Naga organisation, now led by the daughter of Naga rebel A.Z. Phizo.
- 'National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Isak-Muivah)': formed on January 31, 1980 by Isak Chishi Swu, Thuingaleng Muivah and S.S. Khaplang . They want to establish a ‘Greater Nagaland’ (‘Nagalim’ or the People’s Republic of Nagaland) based on Mao Tse Tung’s model.
- 'National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang)': formed on April 30, 1988, its goal is to establish a ‘greater Nagaland’ based on ethnicity, comprising the Naga-dominated areas within India, and contiguous areas in Myanmar.
- Naga Federal Government- separatist movement active in Nagaland during the 1970s. After its leader was captured and the headquarters destroyed, NFG's activities decreased.
- Naga Federal Army-separatist guerrilla organization active in the 1970s. Several hundred members of NFA reportedly have received training in China.