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Dinotoxins are toxins produced by flagellate, aquatic, unicellular protists called dinoflagellates. Dinotoxin is a term coined by Hardy and Wallace (2012) to refer generally to the variety of toxins produced by dinoflagellates. Examples include potent neurotoxins called saxitoxins and gonyautoxins (Gessner et al. 1997; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2004; Holstege et al. 2011). The term dinotoxin is analogous to the term cyanotoxin used to refer to the variety of toxins produced by cyanobacteria. Most dinoflagellate species (90%) occur as marine plankton, although some species are common in freshwater lakes and ponds. They comprise an important component of the planktonic food supply in aquatic ecosystems, but under bloom conditions (commonly called "red tides") are capable of producing dinotoxins at concentrations sufficient to cause large fish die-offs and the contamination of shellfish stocks capable of causing poisonings such as paralytic shellfish poisoning. Hardy and Wallace (2012) and Hardy and Martin (2012) summarized several instances of dinotoxin poisoning in humans and non-human animals, respectively.


Dinotoxin Wikipedia

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