General Charles Cadogan, 2nd Baron Cadogan (1685 – 24 September 1776) was a British peer, soldier and Whig politician.
Cadogan was the younger son of Henry Cadogan and his wife, Bridget, the second daughter of Sir Hardress Waller. He inherited his title in 1726 on the death of his elder brother William Cadogan, 1st Earl Cadogan, whose titles, other than 1st Baron Cadogan, became extinct.
He married heiress Elizabeth Sloane, daughter of Sir Hans Sloane, Bt. on 25 July 1717 at St. George the Martyr, Queen Square, London. They had one son, Charles Sloane Cadogan, 1st Earl Cadogan. The marriage transferred the 250-acre (1.0 km2) Sloane estate in suburban Chelsea to the Cadogan family, which has been the basis of the family wealth ever since. Cadogan became Lord of the Manor of Chelsea.
He joined the Army and rose, by 1715, to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in the Coldstream Guards and was made Colonel of the 4th Foot in 1719, a rank he held until 1734. He was Colonel of the 6th Dragoons between 1734 and 1742, and made a Brigadier-General in 1735, Major-General in 1739, Lieutenant-General in 1745 and General in 1761.
He was Governor of Sheerness between 1749 and 1752 and Governor of Gravesend and Tilbury Fort between 1752 and 1776.
He was returned as Member of Parliament (Whig) for Reading in 1716 and Member of Parliament (Whig) for Newport, Isle of Wight in 1722.