Chapman Levy Anderson (March 15, 1845 – April 27, 1924) was a U.S. Representative from Mississippi.
Born near Macon, Mississippi, Anderson attended the common schools in Jackson, Mississippi, and the University of Mississippi at Oxford. Enlisted in the Confederate States Army on March 5, 1862, as a private in the Thirty-ninth Regiment, Mississippi Volunteer Infantry. He was promoted through the successive grades of noncommissioned officer until July 1864, when he was transferred to Bradford's cavalry corps of scouts with the rank of second lieutenant, in which capacity he served until the close of the war. He studied law. He was admitted to the bar in 1868 and commenced practice in Kosciusko, Mississippi. He served as mayor of Kosciusko, Mississippi, in 1875. He served as member of the State house of representatives in 1879 and 1880.
Anderson was elected as a Democrat to the Fiftieth and Fifty-first Congresses (March 4, 1887 – March 3, 1891). He was an unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1890. United States district attorney for the northern district of Mississippi in 1896 and 1897. He engaged in the practice of law in Kosciusko, Mississippi, until his death, April 27, 1924. He was interred in Kosciusko Cemetery.