The Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley Railway was a Southeastern railroad that operated in the Carolinas immediately after Reconstruction.
The Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley Railway was created in 1879 with the consolidation of the Western Railroad and the Mount Airy Railroad.
The Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley ran from the Atlantic port of Wilmington, North Carolina, to Mount Airy, North Carolina, with a significant branch to Bennettsville, South Carolina.
By 1899, the Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley Railway was debt-ridden and bankrupt and was sold to the Southern Railway, where it was reorganized as a new company under the name Atlantic and Yadkin Railway. The newly created Atlantic and Yadkin then sold back the southern half of its lines from Sanford, North Carolina, to Wilmington to the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad, which was later reorganized as the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. The northern half remained a wholly owned subsidiary of the Southern Railway.
The Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley Railway Passenger Depot at Fayetteville, North Carolina and the Rural Hall Depot at Rural Hall, North Carolina were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983.