Born in 1979 in Kharkiv, Soviet Union, Biletsky's father Yevhen Mykhailovych Biletsky hailed from an old Cossack family that founded the village of Krasnopavlivka (Lozova Raion), while Biletsky's mother Olena Anatolivna Biletsky (née Lukashevych) descended from a noble family from Zhytomyr region, to which belong the Decembrist Vasiliy Lukashevich (Vasyl Lukashevych) who founded the "Little-Russian Secret Society".
In his youth, Biletsky practiced several types of martial arts and boxing. In 1990 he refused to be accepted into the Vladimir Lenin All-Union Pioneer Organization. Biletsky, along with senior schoolmates, raised the Ukrainian flag over his school. His major patriotic influence in his youth was his father's gift of a book prohibited in the Soviet Union, History of Ukraine for children by Anton Lototsky. In 2001, Biletsky graduated with honors from the History faculty of the University of Kharkiv. His thesis was about the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. The same year Biletsky participated in the Ukraine without Kuchma (UBK) protests, for which he was placed under administrative arrest. The Security Service of Ukraine pressured university administration to expel Biletsky from the institution.
In 2002 Biletsky became a leader of the Kharkiv branch of the political organization Tryzub, and in 2003 cooperated with the Social-National Party of Ukraine (SNPU) opposing the idea of its transformation into Svoboda.
After transformation of SNPU into Svoboda and liquidation of the original Patriot of Ukraine, in 2005 Biletsky initiated a revival of the Patriot of Ukraine, independent from any political factions. The new Patriot of Ukraine initially consisted of the Kharkiv branches of UNA-UNSO, Tryzub, and former SNPU. Since 2005, Biletsky also cooperated with the newly established Ukrainian Conservative Party.
In the 2006 Ukrainian parliamentary election, Biletsky unsuccessfully ran for Ukrainian parliament.
On October 18, 2008, Biletsky and other Patriot of Ukraine members were arrested during the Ukrainian Insurgent Army memorial march. In November 2008, Biletsky initiated the creation of the Social National Assembly (SNA) which included four other organizations: Spadshchyna (Heritage), Patriot of Ukraine (2005), Revolyutsiya i Derzhava (RiD, Revolution and State), and Slava i Chest (SiCh, Glory and Honor).
In August 2011, members of Patriot and SNA were arrested in connection with the Vasylkiv terrorists case. At the same time, there was an armed assault on the headquarters of Patriot of Ukraine in Kharkiv during which two members were wounded, while the assailant was injured. Patriot of Ukraine members were arrested and charged with an attempted murder on September 11, 2011. On November 19, 2011, there was an attempt on Biletsky's life when he was fired upon in Kharkiv receiving two bullet wounds. Biletsky managed to bring himself to the city hospital where he was operated upon. The local law enforcement classified the event as hooliganism. On 27 December 2011, Biletsky was also arrested on the same charges along with other Patriot of Ukraine members and was held in detention at the Kharkiv investigation jail (remand) for 28 months until 27 April 2012. The supporters of Social-National movements qualified the arrests as politically motivated repressions, and led to nationalist protests in several Ukrainian cities.
During the Euromaidan events, members of the Biletsky's Patriot of Ukraine were among the founders of Right Sector on November 28, 2013. On 24 February 2014, the Ukrainian parliament adopted a decision on the freedom of political prisoners. The next day, Biletsky, along with other prisoners, were completely acquitted of all charges and freed from custody.
On March 12, 2014 Biletsky became a party leader in special operations for the "Right Sector - East," which included such regions as Poltava, Kharkiv, Donetsk, and Luhansk oblasts. On 5 May 2014 in Berdyansk Biletsky became a founder and commander of the Azov Battalion (as a territorial battalion of patrol service). Azov Battalion was transformed into a regiment on November 20, 2014. The battalion was initially composed of members of the Patriot of Ukraine, SNA, football fans (notably the Dynamo Kyiv supporters) and the AutoMaidan movement. The paramilitary formation became known as the Little black men as an opposition to the Russian special operations "Little green men".
On June 13, 2014, Biletsky led his detachment to the successful liberation of Mariupol (First Battle of Mariupol) from Russian separatists. According to British military reporter Askold Krushelnycky, "Biletsky was cool in the evaluation of actions and giving orders calmly and, in my opinion, logically". On August 2, 2014, Biletsky, holding a rank of Major of Militsiya, was awarded the Order For Courage (III degree) and promoted to Lieutenant Colonel on August 15, 2014.
On September 10, 2014, Biletsky was admitted to the military council of the People's Front, yet did not became a member of the party. On September 27, 2014, he ran as an independent candidate at the 217th electoral district (Kiev) for the 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election and won by receiving 31,445 votes (33.75%). In parliament, he joined the inter-factional group Ukrop.
In an interview to LB.ua (Left Bank) given on December 10, 2014, Biletsky announced that the Patriot of Ukraine suspended its activities as political organization due to the war, and would be absorbed primarily into the Azov Battalion. In the same interview Biletsky said that logo of the battalion is different from the German Wolfsangel and symbolizes Ukrainian national idea.
In October 2016 Biletsky official left the Ukrainian military because (Ukrainian) elected officials are barred from serving the army. But he vowed to continue his military career "without titles".