Andrew Archibald Macdonald, PC (14 February 1829 – 21 March 1912), served as the fourth Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island from 1 August 1884 to 2 September 1889, and was one of the fathers of Canadian Confederation.
Born in Three Rivers, Prince Edward Island, Andrew Archibald Macdonald was descended from the Clanranald branch of the Macdonalds of the Isles, the son of Hugh and Catherine Macdonald of Panmure and grandson of Andrew Macdonald who had purchased a large tract of land in the province and, with his family and retainers, emigrated in 1806 from Inverness-shire, Scotland to settle at Three Rivers, where he and his sons carried on an extensive mercantile business for many years. He was educated at a county grammar school and by private tutor and also became a merchant and shipowner. In 1863, he married Elizabeth, the third daughter of Hon. Thomas Owen (formerly Provincial Postmaster General) and they had four sons.
He was elected a member of the Legislative Assembly of Prince Edward Island from 1853 to 1858. He sat as representative for Georgetown in the House of Assembly from 1854 until 1870. When the Legislative Council became elective in 1863, he was returned as a representative of 2nd Kings District in the Legislative Council and again reelected in 1867. Andrew Macdonald was a member of the Executive Council from 1867 to 1872 and again from 18 April 1872 until Prince Edward Island joined Confederation in 1873. He was leader of the Government Party in Legislative Council for some years. He first returned as a representative of the Liberal Party in carrying out Responsible Government and extending the Electoral Franchise. When the Conservative section of the party joined the Liberal section of the Conservative Party, he united with them to pass the Free Education Act, the Land Purchase Act, the Railway Act, the Confederation Act and other progressive measures. In June 1873 he was appointed Postmaster General of the Province. He was Postmaster at Charlottetown until 1 August 1884 as well as Post Office Inspector for the Province from 1880 until that date when he was appointed as the seventeenth Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island since the creation of the Colony in 1763. In 1891 MacDonald was appointed to the Senate of Canada where he remained until his death.
He had been the youngest of the delegates to the Charlottetown Conference on the Union of the Lower Provinces in 1864 and in September of the same year, a delegate to the Quebec Conference which succeeded it and arranged the basis of union for all the British North American Colonies.
He was the U.S. Consular Agent at Three Rivers from 1849 to 1870.He was a delegate to the International Convention at Portland, U.S., in 1868 and a member of the Board of Education from 1867 to 1870, a public trustee under the Land Purchase Act (1875) and Chief of the Caledonia Club.
He died at Ottawa, on 21 March 1912.