Anatoly Alexeevitch Karatsuba (Russian: Анато́лий Алексе́евич Карацу́ба; Grozny, Soviet Union, January 31, 1937 – Moscow, Russia, September 28, 2008) was a Russian mathematician working in the field of analytic number theory, p-adic numbers and Dirichlet series.
For most of his student and professional life he was associated with the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics of Moscow State University, defending a D.Sc. there entitled "The method of trigonometric sums and intermediate value theorems" in 1966. He later held a position at the Steklov Institute of Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences.
His textbook Foundations of analytic number theory went to two editions, 1975 and 1983.
The Karatsuba algorithm is the earliest known divide and conquer algorithm for multiplication and lives on as a special case of its direct generalization, the Toom–Cook algorithm.
The main research works of Anatoly Karatsuba were published in more than 160 research papers and monographs.