Anatolijs Gorbunovs, also formerly known as Anatoly Valeryanovich Gorbunov (Russian: Анато́лий Валериа́нович Горбуно́в) (born February 10, 1942 in Pilda parish, Ludza municipality, Latvia), is a Latvian politician who served as the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet during the final years of the Soviet regime in Latvia and as Chairman of the Supreme Council of Latvia during the first years after the country regained its independence. In the latter capacity he was effectively the acting head of state before the election of the Fifth Saeima in 1993. He continued to serve as the Speaker of the Saeima until 1995.
From 1974 to 1988, he held various positions in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in the Latvian SSR, with his highest position being the Secretary of the Central Committee. Unlike most Communist Party members in Latvia, Gorbunovs supported the Latvian independence movement. From 1988 to 1990 he was also Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet. From 1989 through 1995, he was speaker of the Latvian parliament. During this period, Latvian independence was restored de facto in 1991. As speaker of the parliament, Gorbunovs was acting State President per the 1922 Constitution until 1993, when Guntis Ulmanis was elected president.
Gorbunovs joined the Latvian Way party in 1993 and remained Speaker of the Saeima until 1995 and a member of parliament until 2002. Between 1995 and 2002, he served as Minister of Regional Development, Minister of Transportation and Deputy Prime Minister.
In 1995 Gorbunovs was awarded the Order of the Three Stars.