| Mehmed VI|
Ahmet Tevfik Pasha
| Ahmed Pasha|
Abdullatif Safa Bey
| March 31, 1937, Istanbul, Turkey|
Committee of Union and Progress
Cevat Cobanli, Nureddin Pasha, Izzettin Calislar, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, Cemil Cahit Toydemir
Ahmet Tevfik Pasha
Balkan Wars, World War I
Ahmed Izzet Pasha Wikipedia
Ahmed İzzet Pasha (1864 – 31 March 1937), known as Ahmet İzzet Furgaç after the Surname Law of 1934, was an Ottoman general during World War I. He was also one of the last Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire (14 October 1918 - 8 November 1918) and its last Minister of Foreign Affairs.
He was born in Manastır into an Albanian family. His father was prominent civil servant of the area. From 1887 to 1890 he taught strategy and military geography in the Ottoman War College, while later until 1894 he studied in Germany under Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz. As a result of his participation in the Greco-Turkish War he was promoted to the rank of Miralay (colonel). In 1908 after the Young Turk Revolution he became chief of the Ottoman general staff. During that period he was opposed to the reprisals of the Ottoman army under Mahmud Shevket Pasha against civilians during the Albanian revolts of the era. His strong opposal to Mahmud Pasha's policies led to his dismissal and reappointment in Yemen in February 1911.
He commanded the Third Army in the Caucasus in the early phases of World War I before being relieved of that command. In 1916, he was appointed commander of the Second Army which fought in the Caucasus alongside the Third Army. In 1917, he was appointed to command the Anatolian group of armies, which comprised the Second and Third Armies. The highest rank he held was that of marshal.
After the war, he was called upon to lead the government that signed the armistice of Mudros. Although his period of office was of short duration, he was notable by being the signatory of the Armistice of Mudros on behalf the Ottoman Empire on 30 October 1918, thus putting an end to the First World War for Turkey. He also served concurrently as the Minister of Foreign Affairs during his premiership. He was dismissed on 8 November 1918. Afterwards, he was criticized for allowing all three of the Three Pashas to escape abroad on the night of 2–3 November before they could be put on trial in the Turkish Courts-Martial of 1919–20 for crimes including atrocities against the Armenians of the Empire. Ahmed İzzet Pasha spent much of his 25 days of premiership bedridden after catching the 1918 Spanish flu.
After the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and the subsequent loss of the title of pasha after the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, Ahmed İzzet adopted the surname Furgaç in 1934. He died on 31 March 1937 in Istanbul.
Ahmed İzzet Pasha's decisions during the Caucasus Campaign have also been criticized and are regarded as one of the factors of its failure, while his subsequent high reputation in Turkey has been attributed to his successful activity during the Turkish War of Independence.