Abd al-Rahman Sanchuelo (983 – 3 March 1009), born and died in Córdoba, was the son of Almanzor who became chief minister of Hisham II, Caliph of Córdoba. Almanzor actually had all power in his hands but nominally recognized the suzerainty of the caliph. His son and successor Abd al-Malik al-Muzaffar acted in the same way.
His originally Christian mother was Abda (born Urraca), daughter of Sancho II of Pamplona, after whom he was named; Sanchuelo (Arabic: Shanjoul) being the diminutive of Sancho; because he looked like his Christian grandfather.
In or about 997, the Kingdom of Pamplona attacked Calatayud and in revenge Almanzor ordered the beheading of 50 Pamplonan captives. According to Ibn Darray, Sanchuelo himself beheaded his uncle, perhaps Gonzalo Sánchez of Aragon.
When Abd al-Malik died, his younger brother Abd al-Rahman succeeded him on 20 October 1008. He used his great influence and forced the weak caliph to designate him as his heir (November 1008). The population of Córdoba responded angrily to this development. They had already disliked the rule of Almanzor because he had recruited many Berber mercenaries for his protection. Abd ar-Rahman was also accused of poisoning his brother, Abd al-Malik.
When Abd al-Rahman went on an expedition against King Alfonso V of León (February 1009), the citizens of Córdoba rose against him. They were led by Muhammad II al-Mahdi, a member of the Umayyad dynasty. Muhammad II al-Mahdi removed his relative Hisham II from the throne, became the new caliph and destroyed Abd al-Rahman's residence, al-Madina al-Zahira ("the flourishing city"). On receiving this news Abd al-Rahman returned to Córdoba, but his troops abandoned him. He was arrested and later assassinated on the orders of al-Mahdi.